Many creatures arose with double faces and double breasts, offspring of oxen with human faces, and again there sprang up children of men with oxen’s heads.
Fragments, 5th cen. BCE
Note: This cross is so distant that allegations of the actual existence of cow-human hybrids (quoted on this page) require further confirmation.
The Minotaur, of course, is a human-bull hybrid, which nearly everyone, at least in Western society, has both heard of and dismissed as myth. But is it possible that such hybrids are, on rare occasion, actually produced?
Beyond a recent alleged birth of a cow-human hybrid reported from Thailand (links to article and photos at right), and the widespread belief in Japan that cow-human hybrids actually do occur (link to article at right), there are dozens of serious reports about cow-human hybrids, many of which are quoted on this webpage. Some cases seem fairly well attested, in particular the following, which appeared in a medical journal.
In 1827, an article describing an allegedly real cow-human hybrid, born alive, appeared in the May-June issue of Magazin der ausländischen Literatur der gesammten Heilkunde (Schreter 1827, pp. 487-489). The Magazin, published by two Hamburg physicians, Nikolaus Heinrich Julius (1783-1862) and Georg Hartog Gerson (1788-1844), was a German medical periodical anthologizing foreign literature of interest to doctors.
The following is the complete article, quoted in translation, originally written in German by Dr. David Schreter, an Austro-Hungarian general practitioner who claims to have examined the specimen himself. The translated title of the article is “A Description of a Monstrous Creature Birthed by a Cow in the Town of Wagendrüssel in the Hungarian County of Zipser.”
On the 14th of March, 1825, Benjamin Münich, a resident of the mountain town of Wagendrüssel [present-day Nálepkovo in Slovakia], bought — at least so he claims — a pregnant cow from a certain Johann Krall of Stellbach. On the 25th of the following month, in the afternoon, the beast was having difficulty giving birth and both the owner and his wife were assisting. They were appalled when, instead of a normal calf, they were confronted with a monstrous birth, which they at once put to death. This strange animal was stuffed by a local businessman, and it was also painted by an artist, Johann Müller from the nearby town of Leutschau [now Levoča in Slovakia]. Eight or ten days passed before the authorities there in Zipser launched a legal inquiry into the matter.
This deformed creature has a crown-rump length of three feet [~90cm] and, when placed upon its feet, is about two feet tall. The head is large, and looks quite similar to a human being’s. From the superior portion of the frontal bone across the face to the chin, it measures ten inches [~25cm, that is, about the same measurement as in an adult human being]. The frontal and parietal bones define a fontanelle like that in the skull of an ordinary human infant. The sagittal suture is one inch long. On its head, from the fontanelle back, it has one-inch-long golden brown hair. On both sides the ears are rather small and human-like, but their lobes end in three-inch-long calf ears covered with sparse hair at their tips. The face is smooth and hairless, the eyes a beautiful blue, and the eyebrows a dark brown. The tip of the nose is flattened, with the nostrils distanced from each other by a septum thicker than that seen in human beings. The upper jaw, which lacks teeth, bears an upper lip like a human’s; the lower has ten thin, sharp teeth, and is more similar to a calf’s. On the chest are two rounded breasts with well-formed, prominent areolae 2.5 inches in circumference. These mammae are elevated somewhat (about half an inch) above the surrounding surface, as in a young woman. The torso and buttocks are like those of a human being, but the body is longer in proportion to the extremities. There is a naked eight-inch tail, about half an inch in diameter. The genitalia are female. Between the hind legs is an udder, and some of the umbilical cord remains attached. The upper portion of each of the four extremities is naked, as is the general surface of the torso, but the lower portions are covered with glossy brown hair. Each leg ends in a cloven hoof like that of a cow.
The fact that the birth of this creature actually took place is witnessed by the entire municipal authority of Wagendrüssel and nearly all of the inhabitants of the town, as well as by the members of the committee set up by the County of Zipser to investigate the matter.
David Schreter, M.D., general practitioner at Leutschau.
So this cow-human hybrid described by Schreter differs from the Minotaur of Greek myth, in having a human head and body, but the tail and legs of a cow. Most accounts of the Cretan Minotaur give him the head of a bull. With its human head and four hoofed feet, the hybrid just described is like the more ancient bull-man deities of Mesopotamian culture (see images below).
But Schreter’s report does not stand alone. Such creatures are reported, too, from twentieth century America. Thus, in a story in the Lewiston Evening Journal for May 12, 1915, (p. 12), an account is given of various freak animals preserved by a local taxidermist, E. J. Boucher of Auburn, Maine. Six different monstrous calves are described, and “One of the six was a calf with a human head. The eyes were close together, eyebrows were present, the nose was ape-like and the jaw perfectly human.”
Another, relatively recent case is reported in the September 3, 1913, issue of the St. Johnsbury Caledonian, a newspaper published in St. Johnsbury, Vermont (source). It reads as follows.
Frank T. Harris of Lunenburg [Vermont (Lunenburg is about ten miles from St. Johnsbury)] has in his possession the body of a calf that has a perfect human face, the only thing of its kind ever known to scientists. He will exhibit this freak at the Caledonia County Fair. The calf is Holstein and has a black and white body, but the head and face are in human form, except the ears. The calf weighed about 30 pounds and had no hair, except a slight beard on the face. It is a wonder that everyone will want to see.
An affidavit signed by many well-known people of Lunenburg, states they saw the freak just after it was born and that it is unquestionably genuine. It has been called to the attention of the medical authorities of Harvard and they state that such a thing was never known before and will revolutionize medicine. The animal has no marks of sex and is one of the wonders of the 20th century.
And on page 4 of the July 11, 1912, issue of the Daily Public Ledger (Maysville, Kentucky), column 3 (source) a report about a similar, but separate case appears. The account was originally published in the Cincinnati Times-Star.
What is considered one of the greatest freaks of nature ever seen in Cincinnati was brought from Ashland Ky., Wednesday, by Dr. Edward Fanning. The freak has the body of a calf but the face of a human being.
The creature was born several days ago and lived but a few hours. “This is one of the rarest specimens ever born,” said Dr. Fanning, “and it will be presented to some museum as a curiosity.”
The body of the monstrosity was taken to Max Wocher’s Son’s establishment on West Sixth Avenue, where it was prepared for preservation.
Another twentieth-century report describing a cow-human hybrid appeared in the March 9, 1909, issue (p. 2, col. 1) of the French newspaper L’Ouest-Éclair:
GRENOBLE, March 8. — A very odd freak has just been born at Goncelin [a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France about 32 kilometers northeast of Grenoble].
A cow belonging to M. Henri Tissot, a merchant, just gave birth to a monstrous animal with the body of an ordinary calf, but with a head that greatly resembles that of a human being, except that it is about one-third larger than that of a human adult.
M. Ruillier, a veterinarian at Pontcharra, when contacted, said he had never before seen anything like it and, given that the monster had been born dead, that he had asked M. Tissot, who agreed, to allow him to dissect the animal’s head in order to report on the case to the [French] national school [of veterinary medicine] at Lyon.
The head of this monster weighed 5 kilograms [about 11 pounds]. [Translated by E. M. McCarthy. Original French.]
Another case was reported that same year from a village in what is now Croatia. An account of the event appears in the June 10, 1909, issue of the Austro-Hungarian newspaper Neue Schlesische Zeitung:
A brief mention of another supposed cow-human hybrid appeared in the September 3, 1910, issue of the Palestine Daily Herald, published in Palestine, Texas (source). It simply states that “Sheriff Davis of Orange has in his possession a calf with a human head.”
The next case is especially remarkable in that it involves a fully viable specimen that supposedly survived for more than a year. The report appears in the January 9, 1908, issue of the Butler Weekly Times, (Butler, Missouri), page 10, column 2 (source):
Another report about a cow-human hybrid appeared in newspapers across the globe in the summer of 1899. The following is from an Australian paper, the Northern Star (Lismore, New South Wales), and appeared in column 2, page 6, of the Wednesday 9 August 1899 issue (source). However, the same story ran in many other British Empire newspapers. The event supposedly took place in Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh. Given that the birth occurred in India, the type of cow involved in this case would be a zebu, not Bos taurus.
Another cow-human hybrid, which was supposedly born the previous year, was reported from Gadsden, a small town in western Tennessee. The following is a screenshot of a brief article appearing on page 2 (col. 3) of the Savannah Courier, Savannah, Tennessee, on Mar. 25, 1898 (source). The source of the story was the Alamo Signal, a newspaper published in Alamo, Tennessee, a town near Gadsden.
Yet another cow-human hybrid was reported in a California newspaper that same year. The following is from the Jan. 6, 1898, issue of The Herald (Los Angeles), and appeared in column 6, page 10 (source). An article entitled “Collector of Freaks” gives an account of the specimens in a collection of abnormal animals owned by a certain Fred A. Robinson. Most of the animals described were of a fairly run-of-the-mill variety, but the following excerpt records something exceptional.
The following appears on page 7, column 1 of the July 4, 1894, issue of the newspaper Znaimer Wochenblatt, which was published in Znojmo (Znaim), a town in what is now the Czech Republic:
Tulln and Sieghartskirchen are small towns in what is now northeastern Austria.
Another cow-human hybrid is reported on page 8 of the June 13, 1895, issue of The Semi-Weekly Messenger a newspaper published in Wilmington, North Carolina (source):
A cow-human hybrid was also briefly reported on page 11, column 7 of the December 4, 1895, issue of The Houston Daily Post a newspaper published in Houston, Texas (source):
Another Texan case appears on page 3, column 4 of the March 9, 1892, issue of the newspaper Fort Worth Gazette, which was published in Fort Worth, Texas (source):
Shreveport, La., March 8.—There is on exhibition in this city a monstrosity in the shape of a calf with human characteristics. The “what is it?” came into the world Sunday last [i.e., March 6, 1892] on the Freewater place, this parish, and was dead at birth. Several physicians have examined the freak and pronounce it marvelous. Its head is shaped somewhat like that of a negro, and the breast is of perfect human shape. It is sexless, and the fore feet are shorter than the hind ones, lending them a look of arms.
A second 1892 case is from nearby Mississipi, but cannot be the same case since the report predates the March 6, 1892, birth date implied by the previous quotation. This report appears on page 4, column 4 of the January 15, 1892, issue of the newspaper The Pascagoula Democrat-Star, a newspaper published in Pascagoula, Mississipi: source
The advertisement shown below came from the front page, column 1, of the classified section of the March 3, 1890, issue of the Los Angeles Daily Herald. The relevant portion of the ad is highlighted in pink.
The following is from page 2 of the February 22, 1888, issue of The Columbus Journal (Columbus, Nebraska), in column 5 (source). It originally appeared in the Silver Creek Times, published in Silver Creek, Nebraska, a village 16 miles southwest of Columbus.
The next case, reported from New York, appeared on page 4, column 4, of the April 14, 1885, issue of the Evening Observer published in Dunkirk, New York (source).
Additional information about the last mentioned event was given on page 4, column 4, of the April 4, 1885, issue of the Newark Union published in Newark, New York (source):
A second case in New York that same spring was reported on page 2, column 2, of the March 5, 1885, issue of the Commercial Advertiser published in Potsdam Junction, New York (source):
Three cases are reported as having occurred in Ohio, one in 1885, one in 1886, another in 1888. The first case appears on page 3 of the January 13, 1885 issue of the The Spirit of Democracy, a newspaper published in Woodsfield, Ohio (source). It originally appeared in the Bellaire Independent on the 9th of that month. The notice reads as follows:
The second is a single sentence on page 4 of the March 18, 1886 issue of the Springfield Globe-Republic (Springfield, Ohio), which reads, “Up at Shelby, Ohio, a calf has been born with a human head” (source). The third appeared on the front page of the September 21, 1888 issue of the Essex County Herald (Island Pond, Vermont) at the bottom of column 2 (source). The Herald notes that the article, which reads as follows, was taken from the Cincinnati Enquirer.
The following is from the front page of the July 31, 1883 issue of The Daily Astorian (Astoria, Oregon), and appeared at the bottom of column 2 (source):
A brief mention of another such creature appears on page 4 of June 5, 1879 issue of Nebraska Advertiser (Brownville, Nebraska), column 3 (source). Though it appears in a Nebraska newspaper, the report refers to an animal born in Maine.
Thus, these last two cases both involved animals that lacked a brain, a condition known as anencephaly. Read about a case of anencephaly in an ostensible ape-human hybrid >>
Another case in 1879 is mentioned on page 8 (col. 2) August 2, 1879 issue of Dodge City Times published in Dodge City, Kansas (source). It reads as follows:
The following transcript is taken from on page 3, column 1, March 20, 1879 issue of The Cobleskill Index, a newspaper published in Cobleskill, New York (source). It originally appeared in the Prattsville News published in Prattsville, New York.
The following transcript is taken from on page 3, column 2, September 13, 1878, issue of the Tri-states Union, a newspaper published in Port Jervis, New York (source). The story was originally published in the Paterson Guardian, a newspaper in Paterson, New Jersey.
And now a report that differs from others on this page in that the reported description is more like that of a traditional minotaur, that is, a human body with a cow face. It appeared on the front page, column 9, May 20, 1876, issue of the Clarksville Weekly Chronicle, a newspaper published in Clarksville, Tennessee (source). Similar report appeared in papers across the United States.
Note that it is conceivable that the condition affecting Frances McClellan might have been a large facial tumor, since such tumors have been known to lead to a wide separation of the eyes and swelling that might mimic, at least to some degree, a bovine face.
The next case, which was supposedly witnessed by members of the faculty of the medical faculty of the School of Medicine of the University of Würzburg, appeared in the May 13, 1858 issue of Courrier franco-italien, a newspaper published in Paris:
Würzburg is in northwestern Bavaria. Although the material quoted above comes from a Paris newspaper, the fact that this event occurred is also attested by various Bavarian newspapers (for example here and here). So perhaps this specimen may still be available in the university’s anatomical collection today.
Two similar cases:
A Japanese museum specimen. A bizarre specimen with not only a human-like head (sheathed with cow hair), but a calf head as well. Note that this specimen has the same conformation as the Parisian cow described by Morand at right. Enlarge image
A Parisian case. In a manuscript in the Bibliothèque de Lyon (Morand 1812), a Parisian doctor, Jean François Clément Morand, describes a cow that he saw at the St. Germain fair. He alleges that this animal had “atop its true head, a growth of the same size and form as a human head” (Original French: “au-dessus sa vraie tête, un kiste ayant la grosseur et la forme d’une tête humaine ”). This is exactly the conformation seen in the Japanese specimen shown in the photo at left.
There were at least four cases of ostensible cow-human hybrid reported in the eighteenth century. Thus, in the June 1752 issue of the Gentleman’s Magazine, there is an account, “Extract of a Letter from a Clergyman at Clayworth in Nottinghamshire” (Anonymous 1752), of a creature half calf and half human born of a cow.
The name of the clergyman in question is not specified, but given the small size of the parish of Clayworth, he would almost certainly have been Reverend James Carrington, who was at that time Rector of Clayworth. The following is the published extract from his letter: “I should have wrote sooner but that I wanted to be satisfy’d in the truth of a report of a monstrous production in a neighbouring village. The animal in question
|St. Peter’s, Clayworth, the country church where Rev. James Carrington was serving as rector at the time the alleged cow-human hybrid was born.|
Carrington’s description has certain interesting parallels with that given above by Schreter. Again, the mother is a cow (as is usually the case in such reports). The animal is again mostly naked, with the exception of hair on the lower part of its legs above the hooves, and as in the case described in detail by Schretter above, it has breasts like a woman. Carrington seems to make no definite statement as to whether this particular cow-human hybrid was born alive.
|Facade of Saint-Nizier, the church where French physician Jean-Ferapie Dufieu claims a cow-human hybrid was baptized on the 20th of January, 1759.|
Another case from this period is recorded in Jean-Ferapie Dufieu’s Traité de physiologie (Lyon, 1763, vol. I, pp. 228-229) in which the author, a French physician, describes an “infant” baptized in Lyon. Thus, he writes that “on the 20th of January, 1759, the vicar of Saint-Nizier in Lyon baptized an infant who had features like
From church records, it appears that the name of this “infant” was François Marie Charton (access a screenshot of the baptismal record). Dufieu’s story is interesting because it is one of only three cases listed on this page in which the mother is supposed to be a woman, not a cow. (Presumably no one would have chosen to have this creature baptized in a church if it had been birthed by a cow.) The other two cases appear below.
A third report from the eighteenth century appeared in a supplement to the July 1784 issue of Observations sur la Physique, l’Histoire naturelle et sur les Arts, a scholarly journal published by the botanist Jean-Baptiste François Rozier and his nephew, scientist and explorer Jean-André Mongez. In this case, the report includes an intaglio plate showing the specimen (see image at right below), but the head is considerably less like a human’s than in the other accounts, perhaps because this individual had undergone only seven months of development, whereas the other reports listed here seem all to refer either to the products of full-term pregnancies (in both cattle and humans the gestation period is approximately 280 days). It is also possible that development was simply aberrant in this case, as it is in a certain fraction of the individuals produced by some hybrid crosses.
|Intaglio illustration of an alleged cow-human hybrid included in Rozier and Mongez’s report.|
Still, in the individual pictured, the lower portion of face is quite similar to a human being’s, as is the cranial region. This illustration is the only one on this page that is, apparently, drawn by an artist with access to an actual specimen, except for that of Schreyer (below) and, perhaps, Martin Luther’s Monk-calf (also pictured below). The distribution of facial hair, as shown in the picture (which is similar to what in humans is called a Van Dyke) is of interest because it is consistent both with several other mentions of facial hair around the mouth in other reports quoted on this page. The limitation of hair to the lower portions of the legs is also consistent with the descriptions of both Carrington and Schreter. At any rate, the following is a translation of Rozier and Mongez’s original report:
A case somewhat similar to Rozier and Mongez’s is briefly described in the June 4, 1910, issue (p. 7, col. 3) of the Znaimer Wochenblatt, a newspaper published in Znojmo (Znaim), a town that now lies in the southern Czech Republic:
Modern-day Moravská Třebová is a town in the Svitavy District of the Pardubice Region, Czech Republic.
The fourth eighteenth-century case supposedly took place in New England. George Lyman Kittredge (1916 p. 37), the renowned professor and scholar of English literature, writes that in 1716 the Puritan minister and author Cotton Mather (1663-1728) reported to the Royal Society that a cow in his vicinity (Massachusetts) had produced a calf with a face like a human being’s. In the same article (p. 18), Kittredge states that “No historical student would think of denying that Cotton Mather was one of the best informed Americans of his time in scientific matters.”
Schreyer (1682) reports a creature found in the White Elster (Weiße Elster) River near the German town of Zeitz on July 17, 1681 (two miles downstream at the village of Bornitz), which he says had the head of a human being and the body of a calf. His letter to the editors of the Leipzig University scientific journal Acta eruditorum included an illustration of the rotting carcass, a woodblock print of which (shown at right) accompanied the article. As can be seen in the picture, the abdomen of the animal is distended, perhaps by gasses released by internal decomposition, as is usually the case with bodies left to rot in warm water; the prominence atop the head, evident in the picture, may represent a protrusion, due to similar pressures, of convoluted brain matter through the fontanelle (which would explain why Schreyer describes it as “corrugated”). Note that the tufted tail is similar to that shown in Rozier and Mongez’s illustration above. This animal bore a beard on its chin as did those in several of the other accounts on this page. Schreyer’s report (translated from the original Latin) reads as follows:
On July 17, 1681, the river that flows past Zeitz [i.e., the White Elster] produced near the village of Bornitz a horrible monster having the head of a man affixed to the neck of a calf. The head bore a prominence above [see illustration], enveloped in a corrugated membrane. The eyes were shut. The ears were like a cat’s. The nose, which lacked a left nostril, was flat. The mouth gaped and bore teeth in both jaws. On the chin was a beard like that of a goat. The neck was quite long. The breast and forefeet were those of a calf, the hind, of a pig [four-toed?], and the tail was short and hairy at the end. Otherwise, this monster, which was of the female sex, was hairless and black. No interior examination was made due to the horrid stench of the putrid carcass. [Translated by E. M. McCarthy. Original Latin]
Stepping back a century, we find the writings of Joan Petri Klint (d. 1608), a Swedish clergyman and historian. In his book On Meteors (see note at right), Klint (translated in Rosen 1994) gives an account of a cow-human hybrid, which he claims was born in March 1588,
Jobus Fincelius (also known as Hiob Fincel), the sixteenth-century German humanist and physician, was a professor of philosophy and medicine at the University of Jena, he authored a two-volume work entitled Wunderzeichen in which he lists events he interpreted as miraculous signs (Fincelium 1559, vol. 2, p. ). Among them was a creature with human features supposedly birthed by a cow near Bamberg in northern Bavaria. The following is Fincelius’s account: “In the same year of 1556, on the 24th of July,
So again, in this account the alleged cow-human hybrid has a human-like head and torso, but cloven hooves and a tail. Also, as did Schreter and Carrington, Fincelius says the Kleisdorf birth had breasts like a woman’s (see also the image of Kamadhenu above). The Freewater animal, in the quoted news report above, also was described as having breasts. And in the present case, as in the ones reported by Carrington, by Schreyer, by Rozier and Mongez, and in the 1913 case in Vermont, the hybrid supposedly had facial hair around its mouth.
Fincelius says the creature born near Bamberg “did not live long,” but Lycosthenes, who also reported this birth, makes no such statement. Conceivably, this strange being survived, which might then account for historian Philipp Camerarius’ bizarre tale of the so-called Bamberger cattle-boy. Camerarius (Operae Horarum Subcisivarum, 1624, vol. 1, ch. 75, p. 343) described a “human” quadruped, which he said he often saw in his hometown of Bamberg. His report inspired Linnaeus to list “Juvenis bovinus bambergensis” in the Systema naturae (1758) as a specimen of Homo sapiens ferus (“wild man”). Later authors construed the cattle-boy as an example of a feral child. The following is the passage in question:
In the court of the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg, we have often gazed in wonder upon a man who, as he himself affirmed, grew up among the cattle of the neighboring mountains. He was so swift and agile that those who beheld him were filled with awe. There were many therefore who thought he deceived the eyes with magic. But it seemed to me that this was in no way certain, nor did I think he had the power to do such a thing even if he had so desired. But the most surprising thing about him was that he accomplished these displays of agility, not standing erect, but rather on all fours.
There in his court, the Prince-Bishop kept a certain dwarf by the name of Marinette who rode this agile being as if he were a horse, turning him in circles and riding him hither and thither, drilling him in various ways, though, in truth if he wanted he could buck off his rider with a single leap, no matter how hard he might try to hold on.
Afterward this quadruped would pick a fight with the dogs some of which were extremely ferocious and then, with his barking and growling, and his dangling hair, drive them from the room. Sometimes they would chase after him and try to catch him with their teeth, but this quadruped, with amazing leaps, would hop all around the room, as even a monkey could scarcely have done, as he was from the country and so fit. And seemingly he did this without the least difficulty.
Once, while I was eating lunch with the Prince-Bishop, after the quadruped had shaken off his dwarf rider and shagged the dogs from the room, I saw him leap from behind over the head of one of the guests onto the table, without disturbing the cups and dishes, and then leap onward to the upper parts of the room, with such speed that, like a squirrel—or like Julius Caesar Scaliger’s Indian cat—he seemed to fly. He would run around high up on the roof as if he were a cat, and it were the easiest and most ordinary thing to do. Moreover, he performed various other tricks with his agility, so that now he is spoken of everywhere as an unprecedented phenomenon. [Translated by E. M. McCarthy. Original Latin]
Is it conceivable, then that this quadruped, was the same creature born at Kleisdorf in 1556? If so, it would explain why he went on four legs and “grew up among the cattle of the neighboring mountains.”
Martin Luther’s Monk-calf, a cow-human hybrid allegedly born near Freiburg in Germany, Dec. 8, 1522 (Artist: Lucas Cranach the Elder).|
|Martin Luther (Artist: Lucas Cranach the Elder).|
Another German cow-human hybrid actually played a significant role in the Reformation. Martin Luther claimed that a monstrous human-like calf born on Dec. 8, 1522, at the village of Waltersdorf near Freiberg (about 70 miles southeast of Luther’s Wittenberg) was a sign from God that the Catholic Church was corrupt. Catholics, in their turn, interpreted it as a sign that Luther was accursed by God. Pictured at right, this creature was, according to Aldrovandi (1642, p. 372), born of a woman. Supposedly, it had a deformed, but human-like head, stood upright, and on its shoulders, a cape-like flap of skin that Luther likened to a monk’s cowl. As did the specimens mentioned in the various reports above, it had hooves instead of hands and feet.
Palfijn and Mauriceau (1708) report a birth that supposedly occurred in Germany in 1554:
So here, again, a hairy chin is mentioned. Note, too, that the protruding tongue agrees with the picture of Luther’s Monk-calf shown at right above. The rudimentary development of the forelegs is reminiscent of the case described by Petri. Liceti (1665, p. 188) also mentions the Passelwalck birth, but gives the date as 1555.
Caspar Peucer (1525-1602), a physician who married the daughter of Luther’s colleague Philipp Melanchthon, mentions a fourth German case, a creature supposedly found dead near the town of Bitterfeld in 1547. Bitterfeld, too, is close to Wittenberg (just 12 miles away). Peucer’s brief account (Peucer 1603, p. 728) reads as follows:
Another, even earlier case has been reported. In his account of Ireland (Topographia Hibernica, 1188, § II, xxi), the Welsh chronicler Geraldus de Barri, known as Gerald of Wales (c. 1146 – c. 1223), relates the following story about a cow-human hybrid that, he claims, not only reached maturity, but even dined on a regular basis with Norman lords at Wicklow Castle (see also Expugnatio Hiberniae for the year 1176). Gerald gave his tale the title Of a Man Half Bull and a Bull Half Man:
The Ox-man of Wicklow, a cow-human hybrid described by Gerald of Wales in his Topographia Hibernica.|
Near Wicklow, at the time when Maurice FitzGerald first gained lordship there was seen a human prodigy, if indeed it is correct to say “human.” For while the creature had a human body, his extremities were those of a cow. To the joints which normally connect the hands to the arms, and the feet to the calves, were instead attached the hooves of an ox. His head was bald, except for a few patches of down in place of ordinary hair. The eyes were large, cow-like in their roundness and color. The face below was flat — merely two nostrils, with no protruding nose. Speaking no words, he voice was like that of a cow.
Long an attendant of Maurice’s court, he came every day to meals, and what he was given to eat, he gripped in the cleft of his hooves which served him as hands, and so conveyed it to his mouth. However, because the [English] nobles of the castle often mocked the Irish for getting such things on cattle, they at last, in their malice and spite, waylaid and killed him, which he little deserved. For shortly before the English arrived on that island [i.e., Ireland] a cow had birthed this man-calf in the mountains of Glendalough … Thus, you might well suppose that “a man half-bull and a bull half-man” had been created once again [here, Gerald refers to the Minotaur of ancient legend]. For almost a year he remained with the cattle, following and nursing his mother. But at last, since he was more human than cow, he was brought over into human society. [Translated by E. M. McCarthy. Original Latin]
Cow-human hybrids have been the subject of mythology and religious awe since the most ancient times. The best known example is that of the Minotaur of Greek legend. In that story Minos, the king of Crete and the husband of Pasiphae, prays for a white bull to sacrifice to Poseidon. But, as Apollodorus (Library and Epitome, 3.1.4) relates, Minos
There are other, earlier deities, such as the Egyptian Montu and Apis, as well as the Mesopotamian Enkidu, which were often represented as a blend of human and cow. The Temple of Montu at Medamud was first built during the Old Kingdom era, that is, in the third millennium BCE Worship of Apis and Enkidu date back to at least an equally early date. And even today, the Devil is often represented in Christian publications as a kind of cow-human hybrid with horns, cloven hooves and a tail.
Another cow-human deity. The Greeks, too, worshiped cow-human deities. Thus, many silver tetradrachms, such as those shown at right, were issued by the city of Gela during the fifth century BCE Stamped with an image of a cow-human hybrid, they honored the river god Gelas for whom the city was named. Gela, which stood on the southern coast of Sicily, was a major city during the classical Greek period with a population of around 100,000. Famously, the tragedian Aeschylus died there in 456 BCE when a passing eagle dropped a turtle on his head. In Hellenic culture river gods were often represented as man-headed bulls, as they had been in earlier Etruscan culture (Molinari and Sisci 2016). An example appears in this passage from an ancient Greek tragedy in which a woman describes her courtship by a river god:
By the same author: Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World, Oxford University Press (2006).
A mythical cow-human hybrid, the Chichevache, a human-faced cow, appears also in The Canterbury Tales. According to Chaucer, it fed only on obedient and faithful wives and was therefore perpetually gaunt with hunger:
The Oxford English Dictionary says Chaucer’s is the earliest known use of the word chichevache in English. In French, chiche vache means “greedy cow” and was in use as an epithet in France at least as early as the 13th century.
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