Deer × Horse

Cervidae × Equus caballus

EUGENE M. MCCARTHY, PHD GENETICS

     
Reserving judgment is a matter of infinite hope.

—F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Great Gatsby
horse-deer hybrid
An alleged horse-deer hybrid, illustration from Hollick’s The Origin of Life and Process of Reproduction in Plants and Animals, (1880, p. 474). Artist: George Landseer

Red Deer
Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), known also as an Elk or Wapiti in North America

Note: It has been my policy in listing reports of hybrids to include all serious allegations, especially those of scholars, whether or not the hybrid alleged seems possible or likely to me. This policy, I think, helps to eliminate subjective judgment on my part, and therefore should remove at least one source of systematic bias from my work. It also helps to fulfill the ethical obligation of telling not just the truth, but the whole truth.

Note: Claims that hybrids can be produced from this highly disparate cross require confirmation.

Various mentions of deer-horse hybrids appear in the older literature, all of which apparently refer to crosses involving Cervus elaphus. One, which appeared in Hollick’s The Origin of Life and Process of Reproduction in Plants and Animals, (1880, p. 475), accompanied by the illustration at right, reads as follows:

A few years ago a remarkable hybrid was found in the New Forest, in the South of England, of which we give an illustration. The account given of it states that “this remarkable filly (seven months old) was found a short time since in the New Forest, and is evidently of a mixed breed, between the horse and the deer. Her mother (a pony mare) was observed to associate with some red deer stags in the New Forest for some months, and, at last, this foal was seen by her side. The nose shows a proximity both to the stag and horse; her forhead is round, like that of the deer; legs slender and distinctly double; hoofs pointed, and partly double; color brown, lighter under the belly, and tail like a deer.

“This extraordinary animal is the property of T. G. Attwater, Esq., of Attwater, at the village of Bodenham, three miles from Salisbury. Dr. Fowler, of that city, has inspected the hybrid, and is quite satisfied of the correctness of the preceding statement; and Colonel Buckley (a keeper of the New Forest) has likewise seen the animal, and is of a similar opinion.”

This is one of the most remarkable and best-attested instances of hybridization, between animals very remote from each other, that I have ever met with, and proves that with due care, crosses may be effected to a greater extent than is usually supposed possible.

The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (1827, p. 390) contains a brief report entitled, “Extract of a Letter to M. de Férussac, dated Berlin, 27th January, 1827.” It reads as follows:

There is here at present an animal produced between a stag and a mare. The authorities of the place have attested the phenomenon. The appearance of the creature is very singular; the fore part is that of a horse, the hinder part that of a stag; but all the feet are like those of the latter animal. The same stag has covered another mare. The king has purchased the hybrid for the Pfaueninsel, where there is a menagerie.

For similar accounts, see also: Ackermann (1898, p. 61); Allgemeine Forst- und Jagd-zeitung (Frankfurt), vol. 3, Sunday, Oct. 18, 1827, p. 500; Anonymous 1827 (cited by Bronn 1847, p. 167). However, all of these trace to the anonymous letter just quoted.

reality thermometer
Reality Thermometer (estimated reliability of this cross).

Two other, earlier authors mention such a hybrid. In his Journey through Wales (twelfth century, translated by Sir Richard Colt Hoare), Gerald of Wales says a mare mated with a stag “and produced an animal of wonderful speed, resembling a horse before and a stag behind.” The Swiss surgeon Jakob Ruf (1500-1558) mentions a separate instance of such a hybrid (De Conceptu et Generatione Hominis, Tiguri, 1587, p. 48):

Indeed, in France, a mare impregnated by a deer bore a foal that resembled a deer in its posterior portion and that no other horse could equal in speed, and it was accepted by King Louis [perhaps Louis XII (reigned 1498-1515)?] as a gift from its possessor.” [Translated by E. M. McCarthy. Original Latin: “In Gallia vero equa a cervo subacta, pullum peperit, posteriori parte сervae similem, quem nullus alius equus cursu aequare potuit ipsum Ludovicus rex a possessore dono accepit.”]

Thus, in all of the older accounts of deer-horse hybrids, it is the anterior portion of the hybrid that is horse-like, while the posterior is deer-like. Also, in all three cases it is stated that a stag crossed with a mare.

An unverified modern account

An anonymous participant in a now defunct page of a hunting and fishing forum posted the picture of an alleged deer-horse hybrid shown at right. When accused of faking the picture, he or she responded as follows:

deer-horse hybrid
An alleged deer-horse hybrid (Odocoileus virginianus × Equus caballus) - Enlarge picture

White-tailed Deer
White-tailed Deer
(Odocoileus virginianus)
I personally took the picture myself. The deer was killed in [Georgia] on a dog/hunting club around Christmas. It is the only deer we have ever seen like this. Even the hooves had white on them. So I guess I will take this as a personal attack that you are calling me a liar. I do not care for being called a liar. I guess that everyone who posts something on here needs a certificate of authenticity? This is not a photoshop. PERIOD. Believe it or not. I didn’t post this picture or join this forum to be ridiculed and called a liar.

Lower down on the same page, he or she continued as follows:

So I took it that I was being told that when I said it was not photoshopped, that I was not believed. I should have been clearer that I was the camera man. It was taken on a raggedy phone. The deer had been skinned and quartered. I don’t know how y'all do it in Nebraska, but we clean them ourselves at home, and take the remains to the woods. That was just before he hauled it off. He wanted to show a few people the legs, etc. so they stayed with the hide. I would have mounted it. That guy didn'’t have the $ so he didn’t keep it. I am sorry I have no other pics,and can only offer you my word that what you are seeing is the real thing. I think it is the coolest wild deer I have ever seen in my life.

Given that the White-tailed Deer is the only cervid native to Georgia, the cross alleged would be Odocoileus virginianus × Equus caballus.

A related cross >>

Bird-mammal hybrids >>

Table of contents >>

Bibliography >>

Internet citations >>

Biology Dictionary >>

By the same author: Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World, Oxford University Press (2006).


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