I believe, that two species widely different from each other, as water-fowl and land-birds, &c. cannot possibly conjoin, so as to produce a living mixed offspring.
Letter to the Royal Society dated May 22, 1760
|An ostensible chicken-duck-hybrid that made news in China in 2008. Note the chicken-like feet and mallard-like head. Enlarge image|
Annie P. Gray, author of the mid-twentieth century reference Bird Hybrids (1958), lists this cross (Gallus gallus × Anas platyrhynchos), but rejects its authenticity. After all, it involves members of two different avian orders (Galliformes and Anseriformes). But Gray was writing at a time when far less was known about animal hybrids, and she had no access to the powerful search engines of the modern internet. One can now find much more information about such animals than would have been possible in Gray’s day.
For example, a story, accompanied by photographs (see image at right above), circulated widely on the internet in 2008. It told of a Chinese farmer, Fu Haiwen, who had a duck with the feet of a chicken. “It never went with the other ducks to swim in the river,” he said, adding that it even seemed scared of water. Puzzled by its strange behavior, he picked it up and was surprised to see its feet lacked webbing. When his discovery became known, curious residents of his village (Huangjin in Xicheng) flocked to see the creature and its story hit the news. As can be seen in the photo, this literal rara avis had a mallard-like head, though the bill was green, not yellow. Its plumage from the neck down was more like that of a chicken.
|A bird hatched in Texas, “Chuck, the Chicken-duck,” differed substantially from the Chinese bird pictured above. A female, “Chuck” had chicken feet and head, but a duck-like body. According to her owner, this bird could float and swim like a duck. Notice her erect, duck-like posture. This strange creature is shown in the video at the top of this page.|
A second bird (image at right), a female hatched here in the U.S., appeared in several news reports and is better documented than the Chinese specimen. Despite her sex, her owner dubbed her “Chuck the Chicken-duck” (from chicken + duck). Chuck not only had chicken-like feet, as did the alleged chicken-duck hybrid in China, but also differed substantially from the Chinese bird in having a chicken-like head. Nevertheless, as can clearly be seen in the picture at right and the video at the top of this page, she had a duck-like body. In the video her waddle and her erect posture, in particular, are quite strikingly reminiscent of a duck.
I contacted the bird’s owner, Ron Schneider, by phone (1/21/2016) in an attempt to obtain feathers for genetic testing to ascertain whether Chuck actually was a chicken-duck hybrid. Unfortunately, he informed me that she had been dead for two years. Schneider He did, however, supply me with some additional information. He had originally gotten the Chuck from a friend, he said, who kept ducks and chickens together in the same pen.
Variably pigmented eggs laid by the Texas bird “Chuck.” According to the owner, Chuck’s eggs never hatched, a fact consistent with the idea that she was a sterile hybrid.
Above: An old news report about a chicken-duck hybrid from page 4 of the April 11, 1913 issue of The Tacoma Times, a newspaper published in Tacoma, WA (Access Source). The description of the Tacoma bird is similar to that of “Chuck,” the alleged Texas chicken-duck.
Schneider also told me that she could float and swim like a duck (unlike the Chinese bird discussed above). Chuck didn’t cackle or scratch like a chicken, he said, and her eggs never hatched (a fact consistent with the idea that she is a sterile hybrid). Indeed, they often exploded (as old, addled eggs often do, as gas pressure builds inside the shell). Individual eggs produced by this bird show an unusual variation in pigmentation from one egg to another not seen in purebred birds (see image at right).
In response to my request for feathers Schneider said he thought Chuck’s buried remains might still be available, which would have allowed testing. Unfortunately, as explained in the following quoted email, it turned out that that wouldn't be possible:
So in the two cases just cited, we have one individual with a duckbill and another with a beak like that of a chicken. Several other alleged chicken-duck hybrids are described in the old reports quoted below, but only one other individual among these had a beak like that of a chicken. All of the others had mandibles intermediate between that of a chicken and a duck. So it seems these hybrids, (if they are hybrids at all) are quite variable even though they are, presumably, the products of a first cross (F₁ hybrids). In less disparate crosses, F₁ hybrids are generally rather uniform, showing little variation from one individual to another.
Given available information, then, it may well be that chicken-duck hybrids, though quite rare, do exist. This possibility is consistent with the fact that in distant crosses involving domestic poultry, such as quail-chicken, turkey-chicken or capercaillie-chicken, thousands of inseminations are needed to produce even a few mature hybrids (McCarthy 2006).
Mating between chickens and ducks
Before discussing additional reports of alleged chicken-duck hybrids, it should perhaps be pointed out that chickens do often mate with ducks, as is amply documented on YouTube. Although many city dwellers are surprised by this fact, such behavior has been observed in the farmyard for centuries. One of the first well-documented scientific reports of a duck mating with a chicken (though no chicken-duck hybrids resulted) was given by the eighteenth-century French scientist René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (The art of hatching and bringing up domestick fowls of all kinds at any time of the year either by means of the heat of hot-beds, or that of common fire, 1750, London, C. Davis), who describes such a case.
An early report of hybrids being produced from matings between a female duck and a rooster also dates to the eighteenth century. The German naturalist Johann Taube (1727-1799) was physician to the British court and to the court of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He was also the author of a collection of articles on the natural history of Celle (Beiträge zur Naturkunde des Herzogthums Zelle, 1766-1769, Zelle, Johann Dieterich Schulze), a duchy in northern Germany. The following is excerpted from an essay in that publication entitled “Bemerkung von einer Hühner-Endte” (“Comments on a Hen-Duck,” vol. 1, pp. 257-259). “A female duck living alone in a barnyard with the chickens was unable to avoid an aggressive rooster there, and was many times subjected to his advances. When she then brooded, she brought into
For more details about this same case see: Mannigfaltigkeiten: eine gemeinnützige Wochenschrift, 1771, pp. 600-604
|Johann David Schöpf|
In his account of his travels through early America, the German botanist, zoologist, and physician, Johann David Schöpf wrote an account of his tour of America during the years 1783-1784 (Schöpf 1788). In that book he mentions (p. 138) that while in Philadelphia he saw a chicken-duck hybrid at the home of a certain D. Glentworth. Thus, he writes, “At this gentleman’s home I encountered another remarkable phenomenon, which
There are at least two other eyewitness reports by scholars. In the first, a letter to Magazine of Natural History (Biggs, 1834, p. 516) with the lengthy title “Ducks with the toes not connected by a web or membrane, and the upper mandible imperfect: presumed to have proceeded from a union between the domestic duck and domestic fowl,” Arthur Biggs (1765-1848), a fellow of the Linnean Society of London and for many years Curator of the Cambridge University Botanic Garden, describes three alleged hybrids:
Prof. Wilhelm Peters|
Dr. Anton Sommer
In a third report (Peters 1862), the German zoologist, anatomist, and explorer Wilhelm Carl Hartwig Peters (1815-1883) communicated to Journal für Ornithologie, a letter from Dr. Anton Sommer (1816-1888), a resident of Rudolstadt in Thuringia. Sommer, a well-known author, was founder and headmaster of a school in that town. Peters was a professor at Berlin University (Berliner Universität, the precursor of today’s Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin). The latter was also the director of the university’s zoological museum. At the time he communicated Sommer’s letter, Peters was also director of the Berlin Zoological Gardens. He provides the following introduction to Sommer’s letter. “Last autumn, when I had the pleasure of spending some time with
In his letter, Sommer describes a bird he believed to be a hybrid between a chicken and a duck, which he says he “saw in the late twenties at the mill at Oeblitz, about halfway between [the cities of] Naumburg and Weissenfels, across [the river Saale] from [the municipality of] Goseck. It was here that I spent most of my school holidays. In the barnyard there,
A reconstruction of the beak of a chicken-duck hybrid based on two of the quoted historical reports. The upper mandible is chicken-like, the lower, like the bill of a duck. However, when considered as a whole, the few reports available suggest a high level of variability in this cross, even in the F₁ generation, with some individuals having bills like ducks, and others, beaks like chickens (as seen in the photographs above), but with others having a mandibular structure somewhere in between.|
Sommer was then in his early teens. He goes on to say that after returning to his home in Rudolstadt he came to the realization that he could repeat the experiment with birds from his parents’ flock. He intentionally imprinted cocks on ducks, he says, by placing duck eggs under hens so that they would raise the ducklings when they hatched. As he, continuing, explains, “Naturally, I could not rest after this, and I wanted to do intentionally, what had first occurred by chance. Already, I held in my hand the thread that would lead me to this goal, that is, I had observed that a drake, which had hatched under a hen, was always chasing hot after our chickens. I therefore caused cocks to be brooded under ducks and perceived already
Note that the description Sommer gives of the hybrid crushed in the nest, differs from nearly all of the other alleged hybrids mentioned on this page, in that this animal was like an ordinary chick in all respects except that it had duck legs. The other alleged hybrids on this page all had feet similar to those of a chicken. Moreover, all except “Chuck, the Chicken-duck” had mandibles that were at least partially duck-like.And old news report >>
|Below: A news report about a chicken-duck hybrid from the front page, col. 1, of the October 17, 1889 issue of Freeland Tribune, a newspaper published in Freeland, Pennsylvania (Access Source).|
|Below: A news report about a chicken-duck hybrid that was also a conjoined twin from page 3, col. 5, of the April 20, 1894 issue of The Washington Times, a newspaper published in Washington, DC (Access Source).|
|Below: A news report about a chicken-duck hybrid that appeared in many news papers around the U.S. The original source of the report was the New York Herald, but the image shown here is a screen shot from page 2, col. 4, of the May 5, 1906 issue of The Tucumcari News, a newspaper published in Tucumcari, N.M. (Access Source).|
Note: Mylius (1751, pp. 392-394, 627-628) also briefly describes some chicken-duck hybrids.
Ackermann, K. 1898. Thierbastarde. Zusammenstellung der bisherigen Beobachtungen über Bastardirung im Thierreiche nebst Litteraturnachweisen. II: Die Wirbelthiere. Kassel: Weber und Weidemeyer.
Bechstein, J. M. 1791. Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drey Reichen: Ein Handbuch zur deutlichern und vollständigern Selbstbelehrung besonders für Forstmänner, Jugendlehrer und Oekonomen, vol. 2. Leipzig: Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius, http://tinyurl.com/cwys32f (p. 719).
Bechstein, J. M. 1793. Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drey Reichen: Ein Handbuch zur deutlichern und vollständigern Selbstbelehrung besonders für Forstmänner, Jugendlehrer und Oekonomen, vol. 3. Leipzig: Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius (p. 411).
Biggs, A. 1834. Ducks with the toes not connected by a web or membrane, and the upper mandible imperfect: presumed to have proceeded from a union between the domestic duck and domestic fowl. Magazine of Natural History and Journal of Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, Geology and Meteorology. 7: 516-517.
Bronn, H. G. 1847. Handbuch einer Geschichte der Natur. Vol. 2, 2nd ed. Stuttgart, Wien, http://tinyurl.com/br9jpg2 (pp. 165, 174).
Gray, A. P. 1958. Bird hybrids: A checklist with bibliography. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, The Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics Edinburgh, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England.
Mylius, C. 1751. Physikalische Belustigungen, vol. 1. Berlin: Christian Friedrich Voß.
Peters, W. 1862. Ueber Bastardbildung von Rector Dr. Sommer, in Schnepfenthal. Journal für Ornithologie. 10: 209-212.
Przibram, H. 1910. Experimentalzoologie. 3. Phylogenese. Chapter IV: Bastardierung. Leipzig and Vienna: Franz Deuticke, (p. 80).
Shufeldt, R. W. 1893. Notes on the trunk skeleton of a hybrid grouse. The Auk, 10: 281-285. http://tinyurl.com/pnhyffm (On p. 282, Shufeldt describes mating between a drake and a hen.)
Taube, J. 1766. Beyträge zur Naturkunde des Herzogthums Zelle. vol. 1. Zelle: Johann Dieterich Schulze. http://tinyurl.com/cmfzztb).
von Haller, A. 1758. Sur la formation du coeur dans le poulet, sur l'oeil, sur la structure du ... second mémoire. Lausanne, Bousquet. http://tinyurl.com/chzk6jy (p. 189).
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