EUGENE M. MCCARTHY, PHD GENETICS, ΦΒΚ
Leviticus forbids women to copulate either with goats or with horses. It must be the case then that at one time such couplings were common.
Human-horse hybrids, better known as centaurs, spend most of their time trotting through mythological scenery, and only rarely set hoof in the realm of observational science. But the existence of actual hybrids has in fact been reported on many different occasions. Many of these reports are quoted in this article.
Historian of biology Conway Zirkle (1941: 487) states that the existence of centaurs was accepted until late medieval times. He mentions the Byzantine scholar Manuel Philes (c. 1275-1345) as a proponent of this notion, and also cites the Roman Catholic saint Albertus Magnus (c. 1200-1280), quoting him as follows (De Animalibus, Bk. XXII, Tr. 2, Ch. 24):
Onos is Greek for ass, so the name onocentaur means “ass-centaur.” Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1190-1264?) in his Speculum Naturale (Vol. II, Bk. 20, Ch. 97) states that
This, incidentally, is the form (ass’s head and human body) that Shakespeare’s bewitched weaver, Nick Bottom, takes on in A Midsummer Night’s Dream (see image below).
But in truth, belief in these creatures persisted to a much later date than Zirkle suggests. The Renaissance physician Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) seriously reported that a mare had foaled a colt at Verona which had the “well-formed head of a man, while the rest of him was a horse” (Paré 1982, p. 6). And in his encyclopedia of equine medicine (Adlersflügel 1703), the renowned equine veterinarian Georg Simon Winters von Adlersflügel speaks of this centaurian prodigy as if it were something to be believed, and he even provides a good quality illustration (see figure, above right).
These assertions refer to a report that first appeared in Albertino Mussato’s history of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII (see Mussati 1536, p. 52), which in translation reads,
And the English cleric Edward Topsell (circa 1572 – 1625) discussed centaurs in his History of Four-footed Beasts (1608). He expressed his opinion that it was “possible that such should be generated by unclean and natural copulation, but unpossible that they should live long after birth.”
Other scholars in the early scientific era reported additional births of centaurs and onocentaurs, most of them supposedly birthed by women:
And such reports persisted well beyond the seventeenth century. Douthwaite (1997) says that “accounts of animal-human interbreeding abound in eighteenth-century natural histories and reveal a curiosity mixed with repulsion for hybrids of all kinds.”
Such comments appear in the writings of the most enlightened writers of the era. In his Reise durch Siberien (1752, p. 460), the German naturalist and geographer Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755) describes his experiences during an expedition across Siberia. There he mentions in passing that, at one of the towns he passed through, a colt was born with a human head. And Voltaire says (Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations, 1756):
Elsewhere he writes (Voltaire 1768, vol. VIII, pp. 120-121):
Jonas Lillequist (2006, pp. 159-162) documents an interesting Swedish court case in which the accused supposedly encountered a human-horse hybrid. In 1706, a Colonel Anders Sparfeldt served as head of a military tribunal trying a soldier named Sven Jönsson who had left his regiment without leave. Jönsson claimed that during his time away he had had sexual intercourse with a being who was a woman in every aspect except that she had “shaggy legs and a mare’s tail.”
By the end of the trial, Colonel Sparfeldt, who had closely interrogated Jönsson, reached the conclusion that this event had in fact occurred, and that the creature in question was the product of a mating between a man and a mare. Sparfeldt had a portrait (shown at right) drawn of the “woman” after the soldier’s description.
Certainly, this case does not in any way demonstrate that horses and human beings can produce hybrids together. It does however show that only a couple of centuries ago, even some of the more sober members of society, in this case the head justice of a military court, accepted that such things might occur.
And Douthwaite should not have implied that such beliefs died out by 1800. Throughout much of the nineteenth century the idea was widespread, even among the educated, that sexual relations between a human and an animal could result in the production of hybrid offspring. For example, an 1827 report in a German medical journal (quoted in translation elsewhere on this website) describes a supposed human-cow hybrid.
And, as the newspaper era unfolded, such accounts were still being published. For example, the following is a text of an article on page 3, column 3, of the November 2, 1865, issue of the Nashville Daily Union, a newspaper published in Nashville, Tennessee (source):
We recently noted the discovery, at Nashville, Tenn., of a remarkable Lusus naturae. The monstrosity has a human head and features, while the body and legs are of the brute creation. It is called half horse and half man, and these dual characteristics are said to be singularly prominent and well defined. To what class or order of conformation does this wonder belong? With our limited knowledge of animal monstrosities, we are totally unable to assign it a connective place with any known phenomena of nature. It belongs to none of the tribes or families enumerated and discussed by the historians of teratology, but seems to be the actual representation of that species of deformity which had only a fabulous existence in and prior to the seventeenth century. In those days of superstition, the Minotaur, the centaurs, satyrs, dragons, tritus, siren, and mermaids were regarded as creatures half human half animal, but this mythological belief is no longer shared by any but the hopelessly ignorant and credulous. The astounding fact is established beyond cavil that such a freak (the unity of man and beast) does exist in the form now on exhibition at Nashville. It surely is a subject for philosophical and medical study, and we hope some of the modern Hippocrateses, Aristotles, Plinys, Galens, or St. Hilaires will investigate it for the enlightenment of our own country and the world. This great phenomenal curiosity is in the possession of Dr. L. L. Coleman, a prominent physician of Nashville. As a man of superior attainments in the sciences of anatomy and embryology, he treats it as the veritable wonder of the times. The attention of the medical world will be attracted to it and result in the most remarkable demonstration of fetal mystery.
The above mentioned "monstrosity" is attracting considerable attention in this city. The exhibition is visited daily by hundreds of deeply interested spectators, who take part in the discussion as to what it can be. Go and see it, if you have not already done so.
Another case was reported on the front page 4, column 1, of the July 13, 1866, issue of The Hancock Jeffersonian, a newspaper published in Findlay, Ohio (source).
And, a few years previously, the following article could be read in column 6 of the front page of the April 8, 1859, issue of The Hancock Jeffersonian, a newspaper published Findlay, Ohio (source). The same report appeared in various newspapers around the U.S.
Another example, involving a woman giving birth to a horselike offspring, appears in the May 5, 1847, issue of the Viennese newspaper Der Humorist, eine Zeitschrift für Scherz und Ernst, Kunst, Theater, Geselligkeit und Sitt:
This last report, about a woman giving birth to a horse, can be compared to the 1625 case in Padua of a woman birthing a horse, and the 1634 case at Messina of woman giving birth to a donkey (both mentioned above).
At other American reports also describe a woman giving birth to a creature with anatomical traits characteristic of a horse. One was a notice that appeared on page 6, column 5, of the August 22, 1891, issue of the Pittsburg Dispatch, a newspaper published in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania (source):
Another such case case was mentioned in a news report about two abnormal births, one, a child born without the top of its skull (omitted here), the other, a child born fully like a horse from the navel up. This report appeared on the front page, column 5, of the February 15, 1889, issue of the Fort Worth Daily Gazette, a newspaper published in Fort Worth, Texas (source):
SIDNEY, OHIO, Feb. 11.—The birth of two monstrous children occurred here within the past three days. In the case of the first child [description of first child omitted]…
In the case of the second child it proved to be, from its stomach up, a complete horse. Its arms stood out like the forelegs of a horse, and instead of hands were perfectly formed hoofs. The child lived two days. Several months ago the mother went into the barn with her husband. She passed in front of the mangers and a horse snapped at her, causing great fright.
In the previous year, “A woman at Anderson Ind[iana] gave birth to a child half human, half horse. The mother was thrown from [a] carriage some months ago,” according to a notice on the front page, column 5, of the December 17, 1888, issue of The Evening Bulletin, a newspaper published in Maysville, Kentucky (source).
For centuries, the birth of human offspring with animal-like traits were explained by asserting that the mother in question had been frightened by an animal that matched the traits of the “child,” such supposed effects of the mother's experiences on the unborn child were known as "maternal impressions." No doctor takes the theory of maternal impressions seriously today.
Another case is reported on the front page, column 5, of the May 4, 1872, issue of the Shepherdstown Register, a newspaper published in Shepherdstown, West Virginia (source). It reads as follows:
Williamsport lies on the Potomac River about seventy miles above Washington, D.C.
In 1873, on the front page, column 6, of the May 22 issue of The Vinton Record, a newspaper published in McArthur, Vinton County, Ohio (source), the following account appeared:
Hybrids are often killed at birth, or soon thereafter, by owners who view them as unnatural monsters.
Yet another case appeared on page 3, column 3 of the June 14, 1878, issue of The Findlay Jeffersonian, a newspaper published in Findlay, Ohio (source):
In 1885, a centaur was allegedly foaled in upstate New York. The following is a transcript of a report on the front page, column 4, of the November 27, 1885, issue of the Barbour County Index, a newspaper published in Medicine Lodge, Kansas (source):
Veterinary Surgeon Pulman, of this village, was called to Sharon Springs to attend a foaling case yesterday, the mare being a trotter owned by Dr. Howard Green, of New York. Two thousand dollars had been refused for her. During parturition the mare and foal died. The colt's head above the eyes resembled a human cranium there being a place for the ears and eyes, and the soft spot on the top [i.e., the fontanelle], which is never found on the colt. The lower part of the head resembled almost perfectly the face of a pug dog, the mouth being dark colored. The malformed head was taken to Unica to be preserved.
A notice about a talking centaur on display in Portland, Oregon, appeared on the front page, column 3 of the June 20, 1890, issue of The State Rights Democrat, a newspaper published in Albany, Oregon, (source):
In 1891, the residents of Macomb, Illinois were shocked by a mare giving birth to a foal with a human head. The story appeared in numerous papers around the country. The following appeared on page 2, column 1 of the March 13, 1891, issue of The Wichita Daily Eagle, a newspaper published in Wichita, Kansas (source):
And in following year of 1892, we have the following brief notice about a centaur being born in the town of Guthrie, Oklahoma. It appeared on page 2, column 2, of the February 5 issue of the Bismarck Weekly Tribune, a newspaper published in Bismarck, North Dakota (source):
Another report about the Guthrie event appeared on the front page, bottom of column 4, of the February 4, 1892, issue of the Fort Worth Gazette (source). The story originated with the Watertown Public Opinion is a newspaper published in Watertown, South Dakota.
The next report is from page 4 of the October 16, 1897, issue of the Daily Concord Standard, a newspaper published in Concord, North Carolina (source):
Another brief notice about a centaur appeared on page 5, column 1 of the May 2, 1899, issue of The Bourbon News, a newspaper published in Paris, Kentucky (source):
The next transcript, about a 35-year-old horse-human hybrid found outside Lewiston, Idaho, takes news stories about centaurs into the twentieth century. It is copied from the front page, column 4, of the August 20, 1903 issue of the Idaho County Free Press, a newspaper published in Grangeville, Idaho (source):
This last case is reminiscent of the 1637 case in Amsterdam reported by Thomas Bartholin, in which a woman gave birth to a daughter with the head of a horse.
Another story about a rather elderly centaur, this one 39 years of age, appeared on the front page, column 1, of the December 29, 1903 issue of The Daily Telegram, a newspaper published in Clarksburg, West Virginia (source):
This last report refers to phony centaur James Bond, and individual with joint deformities, who for years was billed as a real human-horse mix.
The following report appeared on page 5, column 7, of the August 26, 1909 issue of The Times-Dispatch, a newspaper published in Richmond, Virginia (source):
Jones Neck is a cape in Chesterfield County, Virginia.
Another case in which only the pedal extremities were reported affected appeared on page 6, column 4, of the June 7, 1897, issue of the Los Angeles Herald (source), however, in this brief notice the hoofs were supposedly replaced with human feet, not hands. It states that a “party near Bloomingdale [Kentucky] reports to his paper that a mare of Tom Adams has a colt whose body is half bay and half gray; that its feet look like human feet.”
Another twentieth-century report, this time involving a cyclops, appeared on page 4, column 4, of the April 2, 1915, issue of the Red Bluff Daily News, a newspaper published in Red Bluff, California (source):
So the above are all the reports from the post-medieval era that diligent search has as yet revealed. But there are probably others out there. If you know of one, please contact the website.
The Centaurs (from Bullfinch’s Mythology): “These monsters were represented as men from the head to the loins, while the rest of the body was that of a horse. The ancients were too fond of a horse to consider the union of his nature with man’s as forming a very degraded compound, and accordingly the Centaur is the only one of the fancied monsters of antiquity to which any good traits are assigned. The Centaurs were admitted to the companionship of man, and at the marriage of Pirithous with Hippodamia they were among the guests. At the feast of Eurytion, one of the Centaurs, becoming intoxicated with the wine, attempted to offer violence to the bride; the other Centaurs followed his example, and a dreadful conflict arose in which several of them were slain. This is the celebrated battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs, a favorite subject with the sculptors and poets of antiquity.
“But not all the Centaurs were like the rude guests of Pirithous. Chiron was instructed by Apollo and Artemis, and was renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine, music, and the art of prophecy. The most distinguished heroes of Greek history were his pupils. Among the rest the infant Asklepios was intrusted to his charge by Apollo, his father. When the sage returned to his home bearing the infant, his daughter Ocyroe came forth to meet him, and at sight of the child burst forth into a prophetic strain (for she was a prophetess), foretelling the glory that he was to achieve. Asklepios when grown up became a renowned physician, and even in one instance succeeded in restoring the dead to life. Hades resented this, and Zeus, at his request, struck the bold physician with lightning, and killed him, but after his death received him into the number of the gods.
“Chiron was the wisest and most just of all the Centaurs, and at his death Zeus placed him among the stars as the constellation Sagittarius.”
From Plutarch’s Banquet of Seven Wise Men (Ch. 11): “As Thales was talking after this fashion, in comes a servant and tells us it was Periander’s pleasure we would come in and inform him what we thought of a certain creature brought into his presence that instant, whether it were so born by chance or were a monster and omen; — himself seeming mightily affected and concerned, for he judged his sacrifice polluted by it. At the same time he walked before us into a certain house adjoining to his garden-wall, where we found a young beardless shepherd, tolerably handsome, who having opened a leathern bag produced and showed us a child born (as he averred) of a mare. His upper parts as far as his neck and his hands, was of human shape, and the rest of his body resembled a perfect horse; his cry was like that of a child newly born. As soon as Niloxenus saw it, he cried out, 'The gods deliver us!' and away he fled as one sadly affrighted. But Thales eyed the shepherd a considerable while, and then smiling (for it was his way to jeer me perpetually about my art) says he, I doubt not, Diocles, but you have been all this time seeking for some expiatory sacrifice, and meaning to call to your aid those gods whose province and work it is to avert evils from men, as if some great and grievous thing had happened. Why not? quoth I, for undoubtedly this prodigy portends sedition and war, and I fear the dire portents thereof may extend to myself, my wife, and my children, and prove all our ruin; since, before I have atoned for my former fault, the goddess gives us this second evidence and proof of her displeasure. Thales replied never a word, but laughing went out of the house. Periander, meeting him at the door, inquired what we thought of that creature; he dismissed me, and taking Periander by the hand, said, 'Whatsoever Diocles shall persuade you to do, do it at your best leisure; but I advise you either not to have such youthful men to keep your mares, or to give them leave to marry.'”
From Aelian’s De Natura Animalium (Bk. XVII, ch. 9): “Indeed, it is now in my mind to describe the onocentaur, relating the things I have learned through hearsay and fable. This onocentaur undoubtedly has a face similar to a man’s but surrounded by long hair. Its neck and chest also have a human appearance. It also has on its chest distended breasts. It has shoulders, arms, elbows and hands and a chest and even loins like a human’s. Its back, stomach, sides and hind legs are similar to those of an ass, and are ash colored as an ass, but the lower part of the stomach (over toward the side) is of a lighter shade. Its hands perform a double duty, for when there is need for speed, they run ahead of the hind feet and consequently cannot be overtaken by other four-footed animals. Moreover, when it finds it necessary to seize food or to raise, place, seize or bind anything, the hands, which formerly were feet, are brought forth and then it does not walk but sits. It is an animal of a serious, sad spirit, for, if it is captured, not enduring confinement, it refuses all food because of its desire for liberty and starves to death. Crates of Mysian Pergamon testifies that Pythagorus tells these things concerning the onocentaur.”
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