Charles Darwin Biography

The Autobiography - Early School Years

macroevolution logo Famous Biologists
Browse news: Animals Molecular Fossils Marine Earth Biotech Environment Recent Medical Astronomy General

Home | About Us | Site Search | News | Biographies | Dictionary | Human Evolution | Donations

EDITED BY EUGENE M. MCCARTHY, PHD


Shropshire's location
Shropshire's location
I was born at Shrewsbury [in Shropshire, which lies in western England and borders on northern Wales] February 12th, 1809, and my earliest recollection goes back only to when I was a few months over four years old, when we went to near Abergele [a resort town on the north coast of Wales] for sea-bathing, and I recollect some events and places there with some little distinctness.

Susannah Darwin
Susannah Darwin
(1765–1817)
My mother [Susannah Darwin, daughter of the industrialist Josiah Wedgwood I] died in July, 1817 [facts point to a gastrointestinal illness, probably a cancer], when I was a little over eight years old, and it is odd that I can remember hardly anything about her except her deathbed, her black velvet gown, and her curiously constructed work-table. In the spring of this same year I was sent to a day-school [run by Reverend George Case, minister of the local Unitarian Chapel, which Mrs. Darwin had regularly attended with the young Charles and the rest of her children¹] in Shrewsbury, where I stayed a year.

[Charles Darwin's father, Dr. Robert Waring Darwin (1766–1848), was a wealthy physician.² His own father, Erasmus, had been the friend of Charles' other grandfather, Josiah Wedgwood. This connection led to the marriage of Charles' parents. As Desmond and Moore (1991, p. 11) comment, "Marriage for the Darwins, like everything else, was managed by old Erasmus…they wed in April, 1796, a year after Josiah's death." With her, Susannah brought a £25,000 inheritance. At the time, a British laborer made about 10 shillings a week. Today, a laborer in the U.S. makes around $400 in the same period of time, so Susannah Darwin's inheritance was the equivalent of about $20,000,000 today.]

Charles Darwin as a child
Charles Darwin with his sister Catherine (1816)
Portrait by Ellen Sharples
I have been told that I was much slower in learning than my younger sister Catherine [Emily Catherine Darwin, 1810–1866], and I believe that I was in many ways a naughty boy.

By the time I went to this day-school my taste for natural history, and more especially for collecting, was well developed. I tried to make out the names of plants, and collected all sorts of things, shells, seals, franks, coins, and minerals. The passion for collecting which leads a man to be a systematic naturalist, a virtuoso, or a miser, was very strong in me, and was clearly innate, as none of my sisters or brother ever had this taste.

Contents:
1. Introduction >>
2. Early Schooling >>
3. Edinburgh >>
4. Cambridge >>
5. The Beagle >>
6. Back in England >>
7. Life at Down >>
8. Addendum >>
Basic Facts >>
Return >>
One little event during this year has fixed itself very firmly in my mind, and I hope that it has done so from my conscience having been afterwards sorely troubled by it; it is curious as showing that apparently I was interested at this early age in the variability of plants! I told another little boy (I believe it was [William Allport] Leighton, who afterwards became a well-known lichenologist and botanist), that I could produce variously coloured polyanthuses and primroses by watering them with certain coloured fluids, which was of course a monstrous fable, and had never been tried by me. [Leighton, who went to school with Darwin at Rev. Case's school, remembered Darwin bringing a flower to school one day and saying his mother had told him you could find out a plant's name by looking inside its blossoms. Leighton told Darwin's son Francis, "This greatly roused my attention and curiosity, and I inquired of him repeatedly how this could be done?"3 — but, of course, Darwin was never able to explain.] I may here also confess that as a little boy I was much given to inventing deliberate falsehoods, and this was always done for the sake of causing excitement. For instance, I once gathered much valuable fruit from my father's trees and hid it in the shrubbery, and then ran in breathless haste to spread the news that I had discovered a hoard of stolen fruit.

Shrewsbury, Square
Shrewsbury Square
(click to enlarge)
Maer Hall, Residence of Josiah Wedgwood II
Maer Hall — Residence of Josiah Wedgwood II and childhood home of Darwin's wife Emma. (click to enlarge). Photo: Geoff Pick
The Mount, Darwin's birthplace
The Mount, about 1860
I must have been a very simple little fellow when I first went to the school. A boy of the name of Garnett took me into a cake shop one day, and bought some cakes for which he did not pay, as the shopman trusted him. When we came out I asked him why he did not pay for them, and he instantly answered, "Why, do you not know that my uncle left a great sum of money to the town on condition that every tradesman should give whatever was wanted without payment to any one who wore his old hat and moved [it] in a particular manner?" and he then showed me how it was moved. He then went into another shop where he was trusted, and asked for some small article, moving his hat in the proper manner, and of course obtained it without payment. When we came out he said, "Now if you like to go by yourself into that cake-shop (how well I remember its exact position) I will lend you my hat, and you can get whatever you like if you move the hat on your head properly." I gladly accepted the generous offer, and went in and asked for some cakes, moved the old hat and was walking out of the shop, when the shopman made a rush at me, so I dropped the cakes and ran for dear life, and was astonished by being greeted with shouts of laughter by my false friend Garnett.

Contents:
1. Introduction >>
2. Early Schooling >>
3. Edinburgh >>
4. Cambridge >>
5. The Beagle >>
6. Back in England >>
7. Life at Down >>
8. Addendum >>
Basic Facts >>
Return >>
I can say in my own favour that I was as a boy humane, but I owed this entirely to the instruction and example of my sisters. I doubt indeed whether humanity is a natural or innate quality. I was very fond of collecting eggs, but I never took more than a single egg out of a bird's nest, except on one single occasion, when I took all, not for their value, but from a sort of bravado.

I had a strong taste for angling, and would sit for any number of hours on the bank of a river or pond watching the float; when at Maer [at the house of his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood II] I was told that I could kill the worms with salt and water, and from that day I never spitted a living worm, though at the expense probably of some loss of success.

Once as a very little boy whilst at the day school, or before that time, I acted cruelly, for I beat a puppy, I believe, simply from enjoying the sense of power; but the beating could not have been severe, for the puppy did not howl, of which I feel sure, as the spot was near the house. This act lay heavily on my conscience, as is shown by my remembering the exact spot where the crime was committed. It probably lay all the heavier from my love of dogs being then, and for a long time afterwards, a passion. Dogs seemed to know this, for I was an adept in robbing their love from their masters.

I remember clearly only one other incident during this year whilst at Mr. Case's daily school,—namely, the burial of a dragoon soldier; and it is surprising how clearly I can still see the horse with the man's empty boots and carbine suspended to the saddle, and the firing over the grave. This scene deeply stirred whatever poetic fancy there was in me.

In the summer of 1818 I went to Dr. Butler's great school in Shrewsbury [pronounced SHRŌZ-burr-ee], and remained there for seven years till Midsummer 1825, when I was sixteen years old. I boarded at this school, so that I had the great advantage of living the life of a true schoolboy; but as the distance was hardly more than a mile to my home ["The Mount," an imposing Georgian residence sited on a 100-foot-high eminence overlooking the Severn River], I very often ran there in the longer intervals between the callings over and before locking up at night. This, I think, was in many ways advantageous to me by keeping up home affections and interests. I remember in the early part of my school life that I often had to run very quickly to be in time, and from being a fleet runner was generally successful; but when in doubt I prayed earnestly to God to help me, and I well remember that I attributed my success to the prayers and not to my quick running, and marvelled how generally I was aided.

Contents:
1. Introduction >>
2. Early Schooling >>
3. Edinburgh >>
4. Cambridge >>
5. The Beagle >>
6. Back in England >>
7. Life at Down >>
8. Addendum >>
Basic Facts >>
Return >>

I have heard my father and elder sister say that I had, as a very young boy, a strong taste for long solitary walks; but what I thought about I know not. I often became quite absorbed, and once, whilst returning to school on the summit of the old fortifications round Shrewsbury, which had been converted into a public foot-path with no parapet on one side, I walked off and fell to the ground, but the height was only seven or eight feet. Nevertheless the number of thoughts which passed through my mind during this very short, but sudden and wholly unexpected fall, was astonishing, and seem hardly compatible with what physiologists have, I believe, proved about each thought requiring quite an appreciable amount of time.

Nothing could have been worse for the development of my mind than Dr. Butler's school, as it was strictly classical, nothing else being taught, except a little ancient geography and history. The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. During my whole life I have been singularly incapable of mastering any language. Especial attention was paid to verse-making, and this I could never do well. I had many friends, and got together a good collection of old verses, which by patching together, sometimes aided by other boys, I could work into any subject. Much attention was paid to learning by heart the lessons of the previous day; this I could effect with great facility, learning forty or fifty lines of Virgil or Homer, whilst I was in morning chapel; but this exercise was utterly useless, for every verse was forgotten in forty-eight hours. I was not idle, and with the exception of versification, generally worked conscientiously at my classics, not using cribs. The sole pleasure I ever received from such studies, was from some of the odes of Horace, which I admired greatly.

Silhouette of Robert Darwin
Silhouette of
Robert Darwin

When I left the school I was for my age neither high nor low in it; and I believe that I was considered by all my masters and by my father as a very ordinary boy, rather below the common standard in intellect. To my deep mortification my father once said to me, "You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching, and you will be a disgrace to yourself and all your family." But my father, who was the kindest man I ever knew and whose memory I love with all my heart, must have been angry and somewhat unjust when he used such words. Looking back as well as I can at my character during my school life, the only qualities which at this period promised well for the future, were, that I had strong and diversified tastes, much zeal for whatever interested me, and a keen pleasure in understanding any complex subject or thing. I was taught Euclid by a private tutor, and I distinctly remember the intense satisfaction which the clear geometrical proofs gave me. I remember with equal distinctness the delight which my uncle [Samuel Tertius Galton] gave me (the father of Francis Galton, founder of the eugenics movement) by explaining the principle of the vernier of a barometer. With respect to diversified tastes, independently of science, I was fond of reading various books, and I used to sit for hours reading the historical plays of Shakespeare, generally in an old window in the thick walls of the school. I read also other poetry, such as Thomson's 'Seasons,' and the recently published poems of Byron and Scott. I mention this because later in life I wholly lost, to my great regret, all pleasure from poetry of any kind, including Shakespeare. In connection with pleasure from poetry, I may add that in 1822 a vivid delight in scenery was first awakened in my mind, during a riding tour on the borders of Wales, and this has lasted longer than any other æsthetic pleasure.

Early in my school days a boy had a copy of the '[Hundred] Wonders of the World[, and of the Three Kingdoms of Nature', by Sir Richard Phillips], which I often read, and disputed with other boys about the veracity of some of the statements; and I believe that this book first gave me a wish to travel in remote countries, which was ultimately fulfilled by the voyage of the Beagle. In the latter part of my school life I became passionately fond of shooting; I do not believe that any one could have shown more zeal for the most holy cause than I did for shooting birds. How well I remember killing my first snipe, and my excitement was so great that I had much difficulty in reloading my gun from the trembling of my hands. This taste long continued, and I became a very good shot. When at Cambridge I used to practise throwing up my gun to my shoulder before a looking-glass to see that I threw it up straight. Another and better plan was to get a friend to wave about a lighted candle, and then to fire at it with a cap on the nipple, and if the aim was accurate the little puff of air would blow out the candle. The explosion of the cap caused a sharp crack, and I was told that the tutor of the college remarked,

What an extraordinary thing it is, Mr. Darwin seems to spend hours in cracking a horse-whip in his room, for I often hear the crack when I pass under his windows!

I had many friends amongst the schoolboys, whom I loved dearly, and I think that my disposition was then very affectionate.

Contents:
1. Introduction >>
2. Early Schooling >>
3. Edinburgh >>
4. Cambridge >>
5. The Beagle >>
6. Back in England >>
7. Life at Down >>
8. Addendum >>
Basic Facts >>
Return >>
Cicindela sexguttata, Six-spotted Green
Cicindela sexguttata Six-spotted
Green Beetle (click to enlarge)
Photo: TheAlphaWolf

With respect to science, I continued collecting minerals with much zeal, but quite unscientifically—all that I cared about was a new-named mineral, and I hardly attempted to classify them. I must have observed insects with some little care, for when ten years old (1819) I went for three weeks to Plas Edwards [in Tywyn, a town and resort] on the sea-coast in Wales [on Cardigan Bay], I was very much interested and surprised at seeing a large black and scarlet Hemipterous insect, many moths (Zygæna), and a Cicindela which are not found in Shropshire. I almost made up my mind to begin collecting all the insects which I could find dead, for on consulting my sister I concluded that it was not right to kill insects for the sake of making a collection. From reading [Gilbert] White's [The Natural History and Antiquities of] Selborne,' I took much pleasure in watching the habits of birds, and even made notes on the subject. In my simplicity I remember wondering why every gentleman did not become an ornithologist.

Towards the close of my school life, my brother [Erasmus Alvey Darwin (1804–1881)] worked hard at chemistry, and made a fair laboratory with proper apparatus in the tool-house in the garden, and I was allowed to aid him as a servant in most of his experiments. He made all the gases and many compounds, and I read with care several books on chemistry, such as [Elements of Experimental Chemistry, by] [William] Henry, and [Samuel] Parkes' 'Chemical Catechism.' The subject interested me greatly, and we often used to go on working till rather late at night. This was the best part of my education at school, for it showed me practically the meaning of experimental science. The fact that we worked at chemistry somehow got known at school, and as it was an unprecedented fact, I was nicknamed "Gas." I was also once publicly rebuked by the head-master, Dr. Butler, for thus wasting my time on such useless subjects; and he called me very unjustly a "poco curante," [Italian for "slacker" or "indifferent person"] and as I did not understand what he meant, it seemed to me a fearful reproach.

Contents:
1. Introduction >>
2. Early Schooling >>
3. Edinburgh >>
4. Cambridge >>
5. The Beagle >>
6. Back in England >>
7. Life at Down >>
8. Addendum >>
Basic Facts >>
Return >>
Continued on next page >>




Charles Darwin as a child
Charles Darwin, aged about 6 years
From the portrait by Ellen Sharples


Josiah Wedgwood I
Josiah Wedgwood I



Have a suggestion? See something that needs correcting? Let us know about it!



Shrewsbury School, early 19th century
Shrewsbury School, early 19th century
Wash picture by C.W. Radclyffe


Interior, Shrewsbury School, early 19th century
Interior, Shrewsbury School, early 19th century
Wash picture by C.W. Radclyffe


Library, Shrewsbury School, early 19th century
Library, Shrewsbury School, early 19th century
Wash picture by C.W. Radclyffe




Trending on Macroevolution.net:






CHARLES DARWIN BIOGRAPHY - Notes:
Works Cited

1. Robert Darwin had also gone to the Unitarian Chapel as a boy, but no longer attended. The Unitarian Church was so called because its members believed in a single god — they denied the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus. It was the religion of the Wedgwood side of the family. Charles was christened in, and meant to belong to, the Church of England. His grandfather, Erasmus, was a caustic free-thinking atheist, who had at least two illegitimate children and spoke of Unitarianism as a "featherbed to catch a falling Christian."

2. Of his father, Charles later wrote (Life and Letters), "He was about 6 feet 2 inches in height, with broad shoulders, and very corpulent, so that he was the largest man whom I ever saw. When he last weighed himself, he was 24 stone [324 lbs], but afterwards increased much in weight. His chief mental characteristics were his powers of observation and his sympathy, neither of which have I ever seen exceeded or even equalled."

3. Barlow (1958).


Charles Darwin Biography - © Macroevolution.net
shrewsbury scenes shrewsbury scenes shrewsbury scenes Maer Hall Zygaena ephialtes Andrej Reiprich Cicindela sexguttata




Charles Darwin Biography - © Macroevolution.net