On the Origins of New Forms of Life

List of works cited (A-G)



Introduction ContentsPeer Review Works Cited
 Select page:
<<  |   A-G   |   H-O   |   P-Z    |  >>

Aguinaldo, A. M., Turbeville, J. M., Linford, L. S., Rivera, M. C., Garey, J. R., Raff, R. A., Lake, J. A. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods and other moulting animals. Nature, 387: 489-493.

Aiello, L., Collard, M. 2001. Our newest oldest ancestor? Nature, 410: 526-527.

Alexander, D. E. 1957. The genetic induction of autotetraploidy: A proposal for its use in corn breeding. Agron. J., 49: 40-43.

Alexander, M. P. 1969. Differential staining of aborted and nonaborted pollen. Stain Tech., 44: 117-122.

Alexandrov, D. A. 1994. Filipchenko and Dobzhansky: Issues in Evolutionary Genetics in the 1920s. In: The Evolution of Theodosius Dobzhansky, (ed.) M. B. Adams, Princeton University Press.

Aliabadian, M., Nijman, V. 2007. Avian hybrids: Incidence and geographic distribution of hybridisation in birds. Cont. Zool., 76: 59-61.

Allen, G. 1969. Hugo de Vries and the reception of the "mutation theory." J. Hist. Biol., 2: 55-87.

Allen, R. J. 1888. The Norman doorways of Yorkshire. Reliquary, Quarterly Archaeological Journal and Review (London), N. S., 2: 101-111.

Allendorf, F. W., Thorgaard, G. H. 1984. Tetraploidy and the evolution of salmonid fishes. In: Evolutionary genetics of fishes, ed. B. J. Turner, pp. 1-53. New York: Plenum Press.

Alves, M. J., Coelho, M. M., Collares-Pereira, M. J. 1997. The Rutilus alburnoides complex (Cyprinidae): Evidence for a hybrid origin. Jour. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 35: 1-10.

Alves, M. J., Coelho, M. M., Collares-Pereira, M. J. 2001. Evolution in action through hybridization and polyploidy in an Iberian freshwater fish: A genetic review. Genetica, 111: 375-385.

Ameghino, F. 1889. Contribución al conocimiento de los mamíferos fósiles de la República Argentina. Actas Acad. Nac. Ciencias Rep. Argentina en Córdoba, 6: 1-1027.

Ameghino, F. 1895. Première contribution a la connaissance de la faune mammalogique des couches à Pyrotherium. Boletín (Inst. Geog. Argentino), 15: 1-60.

Ameghino, F. 1902. Linea filogenética de los Proboscideos. An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8: 19-43.

Amores, A., Force, A., Yan, Y. L., Joly, L., Amemiya, C., Fritz, A., Ho, R. K., Langeland, J., Prince, V., Wang, Y. L., Westerfield, M., Ekker, M., Postlethwait, J. H. 1998. Zebrafish hox clusters and vertebrate genome evolution. Science, 282: 1711-1714.

Anderson, B., Daugherty, R. J. 1974. Characteristics and reproductive biology of grosbeak (Pheucticus) in the hybrid zone in South Dakota. Wilson Bull., 86: 1-11.

Anderson, E. 1936. An experimental study of hybridization in the genus Apocynum. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 23: 159-167.

Anderson, E. 1949. Introgressive hybridization. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Anderson, E., Hubricht, L. 1938. The evidence for introgressive hybridization. Am. J. Bot., 25: 396-402.

Anderson, E., Stebbins, G. L. 1954. Hybridization as an evolutionary stimulus. Evolution, 8: 378-388.

Anderson, K., Moler, P. E. 1986. Natural hybrids of the Pine Barrens treefrog, Hyla andersonii with H. cinerea and H. femoralis (Anura, Hylidae): Morphological and chromosomal evidence. Copeia, 1986: 70-76.

Anderson, T. R. 2006. Biology of the ubiquitous House Sparrow: From genes to populations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Andersson, G. E., Zomorodipour, A., Andersson, J. O., Sicheritz-Pontén, T., Alsmark, C. E., Podowski, R. M., Näslund, A. K., Eriksson, A.-S., Winkler, H. H., Kurland, C. G. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazeki and the origin of mitochondria. Nature, 396: 133-140.

Andrews, C. W. 1904. On the evolution of the proboscidea. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., B, 196: 99-118.

Andrews, P. 1995. Ecological apes and ancestors. Nature, 376: 555-556.

Andrews, R. C. 1916. Whale hunting with gun and camera: A naturalist's account of the modern shore-whaling industry, of whales and their habits, and of hunting experiences in various parts of the world. New York: D. Appleton And Co.

Anonymous. 1979. Sperm production in bison-cattle hybrids. Anim. Breed. Abst., 47, No. 5866.

Anonymous. 2002. Tsessebe with identity crisis. CCA Ecological Journal, 4: 249.

Antonius, O. 1950. Fruchtbare Maultiernachzucht. Zool. Anz., 145(Suppl.): 28-33.

Aprea, G., Odierna, G., Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Vences, M. 2007. Karyological evolution and systematics of Malagasy microhylid frogs. Zool. Anz., 246: 23-41.

Ardrey, R. 1969. African genesis. 4th edition. New York: Dell.

Arevalo, E., Casas, G., Davis, S. K., Lara, G., Sites, J. W. 1993. Parapatric hybridization between chromosome races of the Sceloporus grammicus complex (Phrynosomatidae): Structure of the Ajusco transect. Copeia, 1993: 352-372.

Arevalo, E., Davis, S. K., Sites, J. W. 1994. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence and phylogenetic relationships among eight chromosome races of the Sceloporus grammicus complex (Phrynosomatidae) in central Mexico. Syst. Biol., 43: 387-418.

Arambourg, C., Coppens, Y. 1968a.Sur la découverte, dans la Pléistocène inférieur de la vallée de l'Omo (Ethiopie), d'une mandibule d'Australopithécien. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 265: 589-590.

Arambourg, C., Coppens, Y. 1968b. Découverte d'un Australopithécien nouveau dans les gisements de l'Omo (Ethiopia). S. Afr. J. Sci., 64: 58-59.

Arnold, A. 1983. Phyletic evolution in the Globorotalia crassaformis (Galloway and Wissler) lineage: A preliminary report. Paleobiology, 9: 390-397.

Arnold, M. J. 1992. Natural hybridization as an evolutionary process. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 23: 237-261.

Arnold, M. J. 1997. Natural hybridization and evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.

Arnold, M. J. 2006. Evolution through genetic exchange. New York: Oxford University Press.

Arnold, M. J., Bennett, B. D. 1993. Natural hybridization in Louisiana irises: Genetic variation and ecological determinants. In: Hybrid zones and the evolutionary process, ed. R. G. Harrison, pp. 115-139. New York: Oxford University Press.

Arnold, M. L., Hodges, S. A. 1995. Are natural hybrids fit or unfit relative to their parents? Trends Ecol. Evol., 10: 67-71.

Asfaw B., White T.D., Lovejoy C.O., Latimer B., Simpson S., and Suwa G. 1999. Australopithecus garhi: A new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science, 284: 629-635.

Ashburner, M. 1989. Drosophila: A laboratory handbook. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Asker, S. E., Jerling, L. 1992. Apomixis in plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Astaurov, B. L. 1936. New data on artificial parthenogenesis in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Doklady Akademii nauk, 2: 283-286.

Astaurov, B. L. 1957. High temperature as a tool for controlling development and sex determination: A review of studies in artificial parthenogenesis, androgenesis and elimination of embryonic diapause in the silkworm Bombyx mori Linnaeus. Proc. Zool. Soc. (Calcutta), Mookerjee Memorial Volume, pp. 29-55.

Astaurov, B. L. 1967a. Artificial parthenogenesis and experimental polyploidy in silkworm. J. Sericult. Sci. Japan, 36: 277-284.

Astaurov, B. L. 1967b. Experimental alterations of the developmental cytogenetic mechanisms in mulberry silkworms: Artificial parthenogenesis, polyploidy, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Adv. Morphog., 6: 199-257.

Astaurov, B. L. 1977. Partenogenez, androgenez i poliplodiia. Moskva: Nauka.

Auffenberg, W. 1962. A redescription of Testudo hexagona Cope. Herpetologica, 18: 27-34.

Auffenberg, W., Weaver, W. G. 1969. Gopheris berlanieri in southeastern Texas. Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol., 13: 141-203.

Austin, D. 2005. The English roses. Portland: Timber Press.

Avery, P. 1938. Cytogenetic evidences of Nicotiana phylesis in the alata-group. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 18: 153-184.

Avise, J. C., Quattro, J. M., Vrijenhoek, R. C. 1992. Molecular clones within organismal clones. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenies and the evolutionary histories of unisexual vertebrates. J. Evol. Biol., 26: 225-246.

Ayala, F. J., Coluzzi, M. 2005. Chromosomal speciation: Humans, Drosophila, and mosquitoes. PNAS, 102: 6535-6542.

Ayre, D. J. 1984. The effects of sexual and asexual reproduction on geographic variation in the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Oecologia, 62: 222-229.

Azevedo, M. F. C., Oliveira, C., Pardo, B. G., Martínez, P., Foresti, F. 2007. Cytogenetic characterization of six species of flatfishes with comments to karyotype differentiation patterns in Pleuronectiformes (Teleostei). J. Fish Biol., 70: 1-15.

Babcock, E. B. 1918. The role of factor mutations in evolution. Am. Nat., 52: 116-128.

Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis. Univ. California Publ. Bot., vol. 21-22.

Babcock, E. B., Stebbins, G. L. 1938. The American species of Crepis. Their interrelationships and distribution as affected by polyploidy and apomixis. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington

Bailey, R. M., Gilbert, C. R. 1960. The American cyprinid fish Notropis kanawha identified as an interspecific hybrid. Copeia, 1960: 354-357.

Bajpa, S., Gingerich, P. D. 1998. A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales. PNAS, 95: 15464-15468

Baker, B., Bickham, J. W. 1986. Speciation by monobrachial centric fusions. PNAS, 83: 8245-8248.

Baker, M. C., Pitler-Nabors, K. J., Bradley, D. C. 1981. Early experience determines song dialect responsiveness of female sparrows. Science, 214: 819-821.

Baker, R. J. 1981. Chromosome flow between chromosomally characterized taxa of a volant mammal, Uroderma bilobatum (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae). Evolution, 35: 296-305.

Baker, R. J., Bleier, W. J., Atchley, W. R. 1975. A contact zone between karyotypically characterized taxa of Uroderma bilobatum (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Syst. Zool., 24: 133-142.

Bakker, R. T. 1986. The dinosaur heresies. New York: William Morrow.

Baldwin, J. T. 1941. Galax: The genus and its chromosomes. J. Hered., 32: 249-254.

Ball, S. C. 1934. Hybrid ducks, including descriptions of two crosses of Bucephala and Lophodytes. Bulletin (Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist.), no. 3.

Balon, E. K., Duvené de Wit, J. J., Holcik, J. 1962. The early stages of development of the intersubfamiliar hybrid Puntius anoplus × Rhodeus ocellatus (Cyprinidae). Anat. Anz., 168: 102-112.

Banaszek, A., Fedyk, S., Fiedorczuk, U., Szalaj, K. A., Chętnicki, W. 2002. Meiotic studies of male common shrews (Sorex araneus L.) from a hybridization zone between chromosome races. Cytogen. Gen. Res., 96: 40-44.

Banaszek, A., Fedyk, S., Szalaj, K. A., Chętnicki, W. 2000a. A comparison of spermatogenesis in homozygotes, simple Robertsonian heterozygotes and complex heterozygotes of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus L.). Heredity, 84: 570-577.

Banaszek, A., Fedyk, S., Szalaj, K. A., Chętnicki, W. 2000b. Reproductive performance in two hybrid zones between chromosome races of the Common Shrew Sorex araneus in Poland. Acta Theriol., 45(Suppl.): 69-78.

Banaszek, A., Smakulska, J., Fedyk, S., Jadwiszczak, K. A., Chętnicki, W. 2003. Morphometric differentiation of shrews (Sorex araneus L., 1758) from the hybrid zone between the Guzowy Mlyn and Legucki Mlyn chromosome races in Poland. Mammalia, 67: 217-224.

Banister, K., Campbell, A. 1985. Encyclopedia of aquatic life. New York: Facts on File.

Barbour, R. A. 1977. The anatomy of marsupials. In: The biology of marsupials, eds. B. Stonehouse, D. Gilmore, pp. 237-272. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Bardet, N., Fernandez, M. 2000. A new ichthyosaur from the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones of Bavaria. J. Paleont., 74: 503-511.

Barlow, J. C. 1984. Xenarthrans and pholidotes. In: Recent mammals of the world: A synopsis of families, eds. S. Anderson, J. K. Jones, pp. 219-239. New York: Ronald Press.

Barlow, Nora ed. 1958. The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882. With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his grand-daughter Nora Barlow. London: Collins.

Barrio, A., Pistol de Rubel, D. 1972. Encuesta cariotypica de poblaciones argentino-uruguayas de Odontophrynus americanus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) relacionada con otros rasquos taxonomicos. Physis, 31: 218-291.

Barrio, A., Rinaldi de Chieri, P. 1970. Estudios citogenéticos sobre el género Pleurodema y sous consecuencias evolutivas (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae). Physis, 30: 309-319.

Barton, N. H., Gale, K. S. 1993. Genetic analysis of hybrid zones. In: Hybrid zones and the evolutionary process, ed. R. G. Harrison, pp. 13-45. New York: Oxford University Press.

Barton, N. H., Hewitt, G. M. 1985. Analysis of hybrid zones. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 16: 113-148.

Barton, N. H., Rouhani, S. 1991. The probability of fixation of a new karyotype in a continuous population. Evolution, 45: 499-517.

Barton, N.H. 1979. Gene flow past a cline. Heredity, 43: 333-339.

Basrur, P. K. 1969. Hybrid sterility. In: Comparative mammalian cytogenetics, ed. K. Benirschke, pp. 107-131. New York: Springer Verlag.

Bateson, W. 1894. Materials for the study of variation, treated with especial regard to discontinuity in the origin of species. London: Macmillan.

Bateson, W. 1909. Heredity and variation in modern lights. In: Darwin and modern science, ed. A. C. Seward, pp. 85-101. Cambridge University Press.

Batistic, R. F., Soma, M., Beçak, M. L., Beçak, W. 1975. Further studies on polyploid amphibians. A diploid population of Phyllomedusa burmeisteri. J. Hered., 66: 160-162.

Baverstock, P. R., Adams, M., Watts, C. H. S. 1986. Biochemical differentiation among Australian Rattus. Genetica, 71: 11-22.

Baverstock, P. R., Gelder, M., Jahnke, A. 1983. Chromosome evolution in Australian Rattus - G-banding and hybrid meiosis. Genetica, 60: 93-103.

Bazykin, A. D. 1969. Hypothetical mechanism of speciation. Evolution, 23: 685-687.

Beardslee, C. S., Mitchell, H. D. 1965. Birds of the Niagara frontier region. Buffalo: Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences.

Beasley, J. O. 1940. The origin of American tetraploid Gossypium species. Am. Nat., 74: 285-286.

Beçak, M. L., Beçak, W., Rabello, M. N. 1966. Cytological evidence of constant tetraploidy in the bisexual South American frog Odontophrynus americanus. Chromosoma, 19: 188-193.

Beçak, M. L., Beçak, W., Rabello, M. N. 1967. Further studies on polyploid amphibians (Ceratophrydidae). I. Mitotic and meiotic aspects. Chromosoma, 22: 192-201.

Beçak, M. L., Denaro, L., Beçak, W. 1970. Polyploidy and mechanisms of karyotypic diversification in Amphibia. Cytogenetics, 9: 225-238.

Bed'Hom, B., Coullin, P., Guillier, G. Z., Moulin, S., Bernheim, A., Volobouev, V. 2003. Characterization of the atypical karyotype of the Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus (Falconiformes: Accipitridae) by means of classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Chrom. Res., 11: 335-343.

Bee, C. A., Close, R. L. 1993. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of introgression between adjacent taxa of rock-wallabies, Petrogale species (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). Genet. Res., 61: 21-37.

Behrman, S. J., Patton, G. W. 1988. Evaluation of fertility in the 1980s. In: Progress in Infertility, eds. S. J. Behrman, R. W. Kistner, G. W. Patton, 3rd ed., pp. 1-22. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Bell, R. L., Hough, L. F. 1986. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of Pyrus. HortScience, 21: 62-64.

Bell, W. J. 1949. A box of old bones: A note on the identification of the mastodon, 1766-1806. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 93: 169-177.

Belterman, R. H., Boer, L. E. M. 1984. The karyological study of 55 species of birds, including karyotypes of 39 species new to cytology. Genetica, 65: 39-82.

Benazzi-Lentati, G., Benazzi, M. 1981. Contrasting power of the factors for fission and sexuality in a polyploid planarian. In: Biology of the Turbellaria, ed. N. W. Riser, M. P. Morse, pp. 167-169. New York: McGraw Hill.

Benedict, R. A. 1997. Morphological and genetic analyses of a hybrid zone between short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in Nebraska. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Benedict, R. A. 1999a. Characteristics of a hybrid zone between two species of short-tailed shrews (Blarina). J. Mammal., 80: 135-141.

Benedict, R. A. 1999b. Morphological and mitochondrial DNA variation in a hybrid zone between short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in Nebraska. J. Mammal., 80: 112-134.

Bengtsson, B. O. 1980. Rates of karyotypic evolution in placental mammals. Hereditas, 92: 37-47.

Benirschke, K., Sullivan, M. M. 1966. Corpora lutea in proven mules. Fert. Ster., 17: 24-33.

Bensch, S., Helbig, A. J., Salomon, M., Seibold, I. 2002. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis identifies hybrids between two subspecies of warblers. Mol. Ecol., 11: 473-481.

Benson, L. 1950. The cacti of Arizona. 2nd ed. Tucson: University of Arizona.

Benson, L. 1969. The cacti of Arizona. 3rd ed. Tucson: University of Arizona.

Benson, L. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Benson, L., Thornber, J. J., Nichol. A. A. 1940. The cacti of Arizona. Tucson: University of Arizona.

Benton, M. J. ed. 1993. The fossil record 2. London: Chapman & Hall.

Berger, L. 1977. Systematics and hybridization in the Rana esculenta complex. In: The reproductive biology of amphibians, eds. D. H. Taylor, S. I. Guttman, pp. 367-388. New York: Plenum Press.

Bermudes, D., Margulis, L. 1987. Symbiont acquisition as neoseme: Origin of species and higher taxa. Symbiosis, 4: 185-198.

Bert, T. M., Arnold, W. S. 1995. An empirical test of predictions of two competing models for the maintenance and fate of hybrid zones: Both models are supported in a hard-clam hybrid zone. Evolution, 49: 276-289.

Besterman, T. ed. 1984. Voltaire: Philosophical dictionary. New York: Penguin Books.

Bhatnagar, M. K. 1968. Cytogenetic studies of some avian species. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Guelph.

Bianucci, G., Landini, W. 2006. Killer sperm whale: A new basal physeteroid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Late Miocene of Italy. Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 148 , 103-131.

Bickham, J. W. 1984. Patterns and modes of chromosomal evolution in reptiles. In: Chromosomes in Evolution of Eukaryotic Groups, eds. A. K. Sharma, A. Sharma, pp. 13-40. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Bickham, J. W., Baker, R. J. 1980. Reassessment of the nature of chromosomal evolution in Mus musculus. Syst. Zool., 29: 159-162.

Billingham, R. E., Poole, H. K., Silvers, W. K. 1961. Transplantation immunity, immunological tolerance, and chicken × turkey interspecific hybrids. PNAS, 47: 1039-1043.

Binet, M. C., Angers, B. 2005. Genetic identification of members of the Phoxinus eos-neogaeus hybrid complex. J. Fish Biol., 67: 1169-1177.

Birkhead, T. 2003. A brand-new bird. New York: Basic Books.

Birstein, V. J., Hanner, R., DeSalle, R. 1997. Phylogeny of the Acipenseriformes: Cytogenetic and molecular approaches. In: Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation, eds. V. J. Birstein, J. R., Waldman, W. E. Bemis, pp. 127-155. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bishop, W. H. 1964. The paternal contribution to embryonic death. J. Reprod. Fert., 7: 383.

Bishop, W. H. 1970. Ageing and reproduction in the male. J. Reprod. Fert., 12(Suppl.): 65.

Black, D. 1926. Tertiary man in Asia: the Choukoutien discovery. Nature 118: 733-734.

Black, R., Johnson, M. S. 1979. Asexual viviparity and population genetics of Actinia tenebrosa. Mar. Biol., 53: 27-31.

Blacklidge, K. H., Bidwell, C. A. 1993. Three ploidy levels indicated by genome quantification in Acipenseriformes of North America. J. Hered., 84: 427-430.

Blair, A. P. 1941. Variation, isolating mechanisms and hybridization in certain toads. Genetics, 26: 398-417.

Blair, W. F. 1972. Evidence from hybridization. In: Evolution of the genus Bufo, ed. W. F. Blair, pp. 196-232. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Blakeslee, A. F., Avery, A. G. 1937. Methods of inducing doubling of chromosomes in plants. Heredity, 28: 393-411.

Blanc, G., Wolfe, K. H. 2004. Widespread paleopolyploidy in model plant species inferred from age distributions of duplicate genes. Plant Cell, 16: 1667-1678.

Bock, I. A. 1984. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Drosophila. In: Evolutionary Biology, eds. M. K. Hecht, B. Wallace, G. T. Prance, vol. XVIII, pp. 41-70. New York: Plenum Press.

Boehm, E. F. 1954. Status of the Yellow Rosella. S. Austral. Orn., 21: 28.

Bogart, J. P. 1967. Chromosomes of the South American amphibian family Ceratophridae with a reconsideration of the taxonomic status of Odontophrynus americanus. Can. J. Genet. Cytol., 9: 531-542.

Bogart, J. P. 1969. Chromosomal evidence for evolution in the genus Bufo. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Texas, Austin.

Bogart, J. P. 1972. Karyotypes. In: Evolution in the genus Bufo, ed. W. F. Blair, pp. 171-195. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bogart, J. P. 1973. A karyosystematic study of frogs in the genus Leptodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Copeia, 1974: 728-737.

Bogart, J. P. 1980. Evolutionary implications of polyploidy in amphibians and reptiles. In: Polyploidy: Biological relevance, ed. W. H. Lewis, pp. 341-378. New York: Plenum Press.

Bogart, J. P. 2000. Genetics and systematics of hybrid species. In: Reproductive biology and phylogeny of Urodela, ed. D. M. Sever, vol. I, pp. 109-134. New York: Plenum Press.

Bogart, J. P., Lowcock, L. A., Zeyle, C. W., Mable, B. K. 1987. Genome constitution and reproductive biology of the Ambystoma hybrid salamanders on Kelley's Island in Lake Erie. Can. J. Zool., 65: 2188-2201.

Bogart, J. P., Tandy, M. 1976. Polyploid amphibians: Three more diploid-tetraploid cryptic species of frogs. Science, 193: 334-335.

Bogart, J. P., Wasserman, A. O. 1972. Diploid-tetraploid cryptic species pairs: A possible clue to evolution by polyploidization in anuran amphibians. Cytogenetics, 11: 7-24.

Boissinot, S., Ineich, I., Thaler, L., Guillaume, C. P. 1997. Hybrid origin and clonal diversity in the parthenogenetic gecko, Lepidodactylus lugubris in French Polynesia. J. Herpetol.,31: 295-298.

Bone, Q., Goto, T. 1991. The nervous system. In: The biology of chaetognaths, eds. Q. Bone, H. Kapp, A. C. Pierrot-Bults, pp. 20-31. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bone, Q., Kapp, H., Pierrot-Bults, A. C. 1991. Introduction and relationships of the group. In: The biology of chaetognaths, eds. Q. Bone, H. Kapp, A. C. Pierrot-Bults, pp. 1-4. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bonhomme, F., Catalan, J., Britton-Davidian, J., Chapman, V. M., Moriwaki, K., Nevo, E., Thaler, L. 1984. Biochemical diversity and evolution in the genus Mus. Biochem. Genet., 22: 275-303.

Bonhomme, F., Catalan, J., Orsini, P., Guerassimo, S., Thaler, L. 1983. Le complexe d'espèces du genre Mus en Europe central. Z. Säugetierk., 48: 78-85.

Boorstin, D. J. 1983. The discoverers. New York: Random House.

Borgen, L., Leitch, I., Santos-Guerra, A. 2003. Genome organization in diploid hybrid species of Argyranthemum (Asteraceae) in the Canary Islands. Bot. J. Linn. Soc., 141: 491-501.

Borodin, P. M., Rogatcheva, M. B., Zhelezova, A. I., Oda, S. 1998. Chromosome pairing in inter-racial hybrids of the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora, Soricidae). Genome, 41: 79-90.

Bostock, J., Riley, H. T. 1855. The natural history of Pliny. London: Henry G. Bohn.

Boucher, Y., Douady, C.J., Papke, R.T., Walsh, D.A. Boudreau, M.E.R., Nesbø, C.L. Case, R.J., Doolittle, W.F. 2003. Lateral gene transfer, adaptation and the origins of prokaryotic groups. Ann. Rev. Genet., 37:283-328.

Bouetel, V. 2005. Phylogenetic implications of skull structure and feeding behavior in balaenopterids (Cetacea, Mysticeti). J. Mamm., 86:139-146.

Bowers, J. E., Chapman, B. A., Rong, J. K., Paterson, A. H. 2003. Unravelling angiosperm genome evolution by phylogenetic analysis of chromosomal duplication events. Nature, 422: 433-438.

Bowers, J. H., Baker, R. J., Smith, M. H. 1973. Chromosomal, electrophoretic, and breeding studies of selected populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and black-eared mice (P. malanotis). Evolution, 27: 378-386.

Bowler, P. J. 1989. Evolution: The history of an idea. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bradley, D. G., MacHugh, D. E., Cunningham, P., Loftus, R. T. 1996. Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle. PNAS., 93: 5131-5135.

Bradley, D. G., MacHugh, D. E., Loftus, R. T., Sow, R. S., Hosk, C. H., Cunningham, E. P. 1994. Zebu-taurine variation in Y chromosomal DNA: A sensitive assay for genetic introgression in west African trypanotolerant cattle populations. Animal Genetics, 25: 7-12.

Brainerd, E. 1924. Some natural violet hybrids of North America. Bulletin no. 239. Burlington: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

Brandon-Jones, D., Eudey, A. A., Geissmann, T., Groves, C. P., Melnick, D. J., Morales, J. C., Shekelle, M., Stewart, C. B. 2004. Asian primate classification. Int. J. Primatol., 25: 97-164.

Bremekamp, C. E. B. 1953. Linne's views on the hierarchy of the taxonomic groups. Acta Bot. Neerl., 2: 242-253.

Briehagen, T. 1984. Adoption of a brood of Temmink's Stint Calidris temminckii by the Dunlin Calidris alpina. Orn. Fenn., 61: 95-96.

Briggs, J. C. 1987. Biogeography and plate tectonics. New York: Elsevier.

Brilmayer, B. 1960. All about begonias. Garden City: Double Day & Co.

Britton-Davidian, J., Nadeau, J. H., Croset, H., Thaler, L. 1989. Genic differentiation and origin of Robersonian populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus Rutty). Genetical Research, 53: 29-44.

Brochmann, C. 1984. Hybridization and distribution of Argyranthemum coronopifolium (Asteraceae-Anthemidae) in the Canary Islands. Nord. J. Bot., 4: 729-736.

Brochmann, C., Borgen, L., Stabbetorp, O. E. 2000. Multiple diploid hybrid speciation of the Canary Island endemic Argyrantheum sundingii (Asteraceae). Plant Syst. Evol., 220: 77-92.

Brochmann, C., Brysting, A. K., Alsos, I. G., Borgen, L., Grundt, H. H., Scheen, A.-C., Elven, R, 2004. Polyploidy in arctic plants. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 82: 521-536.

Brock, R. D. 1955. Chromosome balance and endosperm failure in hyacinths. Heredity, 9: 199-222.

Brocka, P. 1864. On the phenomenon of hybridity in the genus Homo. London: Longman, Green, Longman, & Roberts.

Brodkorb, P. 1971. Catalogue of fossil birds. Part 5 (Passeriformes). Bull. Florida State Mus., 23: 139-228.

Broili, F. 1927. Ein Rhamphorhynchus mit Spuren von Haarbedeckung. Sitz. bayer. Akad. Wiss., Math. Ab., pp. 49-67.

Broili, F. 1938. Beobachtungen an Pterodactylus. Sitz. bayer. Akad. Wiss., Math. Ab., pp. 139-154.

Broili, F. 1939. Ein Dorygnathus mit Hautresten. Sitz. bayer. Akad. Wiss., Math. Ab., pp. 129-132.

Broom R. 1938. The Pleistocene anthropoid apes of South Africa. Nature 142: 377-379.

Broom, R. and Schepers, G. W. H. 1946. The South African fossil ape-men: The Australopithecinae. Pretoria: Transvaal Museum.

Bromage, T.G. et al. 2008. Craniofacial architectural constraints and their importance for reconstructing the early Homo skull KNM-ER 1470. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 33(1):43-54.

Bronson, C. L., Grubb, T. C., Satler, G. D., Braun, M. J. 2003. Mate preference: A possible causal mechanism for a moving hybrid zone. Anim. Behav., 65: 489-500.

Brooks, A. 1907. A hybrid grouse, Richardson's + Sharp-tail. Auk, 24: 167-169.

Brooksbank, A. 1949. Foreign birds for garden aviaries. London: Cage Birds.

Brown, P. et al. 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature, 431: 1055-1061.

Bruce, E. J., Ayala F. J. 1979. Phylogenetic relationships between man and the apes: Rlectrophoretic evidence. Evolution, 33: 1040-1056.

Brumback, R. A. 1974. A third species of the owl monkey (Aotus). J. Hered., 65: 321-323.

Brünner, H., Hausser, J. 1997. Genetic and karyotypic structure of a hybrid zone between the chromosomal races Cordon and Valais in the Common Shrew, Sorex araneus. Hereditas, 125: 147-158.

Brunet, M. F., G., Pilbeam, D., Mackaye, H. T. A., Likius, Ahounta, D., Beauvilain, A., Blondel, C., Bocherens, H., Boisserie, J-R., De Bonis, L., Coppens, Y., Dejax, J., Denys, C. P. Duringer, Eisenmann, V., Fanone, G., Fronty, P., Geraads, D., Lehmann, T., Lihoreau, F., Louchart, A., Mahamat, A., Merceron, G., Mouchelin, G., Otero, O., Campomanes, P. P., Marcia De Leon, P., Rage, J-C., Sapanet, M., Schuster, M., Sudre, J., Tassy, P., Valentin, X., Vignaud, P., Viriot, L., Zazzo, A., Zollikofer, C. 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature, 418(6894): 145-151.

Brusca, R. C., Brusca, G. J. 1990. Invertebrates. Sunderland: Sinauer.

Buchan, G. 1977. Mallard, Grey, and hybrid ducks in Otago and Southland. Diploma of Science thesis, Dunedin, New Zealand, Univ. Otago.

Budge, E. A. W. (Sir). 1969. The gods of the Egyptians; or, Studies in Egyptian mythology. New York: Dover Publications.

Buffon, G. L. L. 1749-1804. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière. Paris: Imprimerie Royale.

Bulatova, N. S. 1973. A cytotaxonomic study of three related families of birds: Fringillidae, Emberizidae, Ploceidae. Z. zool Syst. Evolutionsf., 11: 233-239.

Bulatova, N. S., Panov E. N. 1973. Comparative analysis of karyotypes of 18 species of the family Turdidae (Aves). Caryologia, 26: 219-224.

Bulatova, N. S., Radiabli, S. I., Panov, E. N. 1972. Karyological description of three species of the genus Passer. Experientia, 28: 1369-1372.

Bull, J. J. 1983. Evolution of sex determining mechanisms. Menlo Park: Benjamin-Cummings.

Bullini, L. 1990. Speciation by hybridization in phasmids and other insects. Can. J. Zool., 9: 422-426.

Bullini, L., Nascetti, G. 1994. Origin and evolution of animal hybrid species. Trends Ecol. Evol., 68: 1747-1760.

Burkhardt, F., Smith, S. eds. 1991. The correspondence of Charles Darwin. vol. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burroughs, E. R. 1918. Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar. New York: Grosset and Dunlap.

Burton, T. L., Husband, B. C. 2000. Fitness differences among diploids, triploids, and their triploid progeny in Chamerion angustifolium: Mechanisms of inviability and implications for polyploid evolution. Evolution, 54: 1182-1191.

Bush, G. L. 1975. Modes of animal speciation. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 6: 339-364.

Bush, G. L., Case, S. M., Wilson, A. C., Patton, J. L. 1977. Rapid speciation and chromosomal evolution in mammals. PNAS, 74: 3942-3946.

Buth, D. G., Dowling, T. E., Gold, J. R. 1991. Molecular and cytological investigations. In: The biology of cyprinid fishes, eds. I. Winfield, J. Nelson, pp. 83-126. London: Chapman and Hall.

Butler, A. G. 1906. Notes on hybrid Ploceidae. Avicult. Mag., N.S., 4: 345-354.

Butlin, R. K. 2005. Mystery of mysteries no longer? Evolution, 59: 243-245.

Cain, A. J. 1955. A revision of Trichoglossus haematodus and of the Australian platycercine parrots. Ibis, 97: 432-479.

Calder, W. A. 1978. The kiwi. Sci. Am., 239: 132-142.

Callan, H. G., Lloyd, L. 1960. Lampbrush chromosomes of crested newts, Triturus cristatus (Laurenti). Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., 243: 135-219.

Callender, L. A. 1988. Gregor Mendel - An opponent of descent with modification. History of Science, 26: 41-75.

Camp, W. H. 1945. The North American blueberries, with notes on other groups of Vacciniaceae. Brittonia, 5: 203-275.

Campbell, N. A. 1987. Biology. Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings.

Camper, P. 1786. Conjectures relative to the petrifactions found in St. Peter's Mountain, near Maestricht. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., 76: 443-456.

Capanna, E. 1973. Concluding remarks. In: Cytotaxonomy and vertebrate evolution, eds. A. B. Chiarelli, E. Capanna, pp. 681-695. London: Academic Press.

Capanna, E. 1982. Robersonian numerical variation in animal speciation: Mus musculus, an emblematic model. In: Mechanisms of Speciation, ed. C. Barigozzi, pp. 155-174. New York: Alan R. Liss.

Capanna, E., Cataudella, S., Volpe, R. 1974. An intergeneric hybrid between the Rainbow Trout and the Freshwater Char (Salmo gairdneri × Salvelinus frontinalis). Boll. Pesca, Piscicolt, Idrobiol., 29: 101-106.

Carbonell, E. et al. 2008. The first hominin of Europe. Nature 452: 465-469.

Carboneras, C. 1992. Order Anseriformes. In: Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. I, eds. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, pp. 528-630. Barcelona: Lynx.

Carmona, J. A., Sanjur, O. I., Doadrio, I., Machordom, A., Vrijenhoek, R. C. 1997. Hybridogenetic reproduction and maternal ancestry of polyploid Iberian fish: The Tropidophoxinellus alburnoides complex. Genetics, 146: 983-993.

Carpenter, W. B. 1851. Principles of physiology: General and comparative. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Carroll, R. L. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Carroll, R. L. 1997. Patterns and processes of vertebrate evolution. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carson, H. L. 1981. Homosequential species of Hawaiian Drosophila. Chromosomes Today, 7: 150-164.

Carson, H. L., Clayton, F., Stalker, H. D. 1967. Karyotypic stability and speciation in Hawaiian Drosophila. PNAS, 57: 1280-1285.

Carson, H. L., Stalker, H. D. 1968. Polytene chromosome relationships in Hawaiian species of Drosophila. I, II, and III. University of Texas Publications, 6818: 325-380.

Carver, B. F., Taliaferro, C. M. 1992. Selection theory and procedure in progenies of distant hybrids. In: Distant hybridization in crop plants, eds., G. Kalloo, J. B. Chowdhury, pp. 122-148. New York: Springer Verlag.

Carwardine, M. 2000. Whales, dolphins, and porpoises. New York: Dorling Kindersley.

Case, E. C. 1934. Description of a skull of Kannemeyeria erithrea Haughton. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Castle, W. E. 1915. Some experiments in mass selection. Am. Nat., 49: 713-726.

Castle, W. E. 1919a. Pie-bald rats and selection: A correction. Am. Nat., 53: 370-375.

Castle, W. E. 1919b. Pie-bald rats and the theory of genes. PNAS, 5: 126-130.

Castro, M. S., Recco-Pimentel, S. M., Rocha, G. T. 2002. Karyotypic characterization of Ramphastidae (Piciformes, Aves). Gen. Mol. Biol., 25: 147-150.

Caten, C. E., Newton, A. C. 2000. Variation in cultural characteristics, pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and electrophoretic karyotype within field populations of Stagonospora nodorum. Plant Path., 49: 219-226.

Cayouette, J., Morisett, P. 1985. Chromosomal studies on natural hybrids between maritime species of Carex (sections Phacocystis and Cryptocarpae) in northeastern North America, and their taxonomic implications. Can. J. Bot., 63: 1957-1982.

Challice, J., Kovanda, M. 1978. Flavonoids as markers of taxonomic relationships in the genus Sorbus in Europe. Preslia, 50: 305-320.

Chan, C., Ballantyne, K. N., Aikman, H., Fastier, D., Daugherty, C. H., Chambers, G., K. 2006. Genetic analysis of interspecific hybridisation in the world's only Forbes' Parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) natural population. Conserv. Genet., 7: 493-506.

Chandley, A. C., Jones, R. C., McBeath, S., Allen, W. R. 1974. Meiosis in interspecific equine hybrids. I. The male mule (Equus asinus × E. caballus) and hinny (E. caballus × E. asinus). Cytogen. Cell Gen., 13: 330-341.

Charlesworth, D. 2002. Plant sex determination and sex chromosomes. Heredity, 88: 94-101.

Cheke, R. A., Mann, C. F. 2001. Sunbirds: A guide to the sunbirds, flowerpeckers, spiderhunters and sugarbirds of the world. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Chevreul, M. E. 1846. Considérations générales sur les variations des individus qui composent les groupes appelés, en histoire naturelle, variétés, races, sous-espèces et espèces. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., 3rd Ser., 6: 142-214.

Chiarelli, B. 1975. The study of primate chromosomes. In: Primate functional morphology and evolution, International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (Chicago), pp. 103-127.

Ching, I. P. 1988. The biosystematics of Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 75: 970-1009.

Chourrout, D., Chevassus, B., Krieg, F., Happe, A., Burger, G., Renard, P. 1986. Production of second generation triploid and tetraploid rainbow trout by mating tetraploid males and diploid females. Potentials of tetraploid fish. Theor. Appl. Genet., 72: 193-206.

Christidis, L. 1983. Extensive chromosomal repatterning in two congeneric species: Pytilia melba, L. and Pytilia phoenicoptera Swainson (Estrildidae; Aves). Cytogen. Cell Gen., 36: 641-648.

Christidis, L. 1986a. Chromosomal evolution within the family Estrildidae (Aves) I. The Poephilae. Genetica, 71: 81-97.

Christidis, L. 1986b. Chromosomal evolution within the family. Estrildidae (Aves). II. The Lonchurae. Genetica, 71: 99-113.

Christidis, L. 1987. Chromosomal evolution within the family Estrildidae (Aves) III. The Estrildae (waxbill finches). Genetica, 7: 93-100.

Christopher, S. C., Greene, C. W., Dickinson, T. A. 1991. Reproductive biology in subfam. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot., 16: 333-349.

Clausen, J. 1926. Genetical and cytological investigations on Viola tricolor L. and V. arvensis Murr. Hereditas, 8: 1-156.

Clausen, J. 1931. Cytologenetic and taxonomic investigations on Melanium violets. Hereditas, 15: 219-308.

Clausen, J., Keck, D. D., Hiesey, W. M. 1940-1958. Experimental studies on the nature of species. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Clausen, J., Keck, D. D., Hiesey, W. M. 1947. Heredity of geographically and ecologically isolated races. Am. Nat., 81: 114-133.

Clayton, N. S. 1996a. Assortative mating in Zebra Finch subspecies, Taeniopygia guttata guttata and T. g. castanotis. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., , B, 330: 351-370.

Clayton, N. S. 1996b. Mate choice and pair formation in Timor and Australian Mainland Zebra finches. Trends Ecol. Evol., 4: 82-84.

Clayton, N. S. 1996c. Subspecies recognition and song learning in Zebra Finch subspecies. Anim. Behav., 40: 1009-1017.

Clayton, N. S. 1996d. The effects of cross-fostering on assortative mating between Zebra Finch subspecies. Anim. Behav., 40: 1102-1110.

Cleland, R. E. 1962. The cytogenetics of Oenothera. Adv. Genet., 11: 147-237.

Cleland, R. E. 1972. Oenothera: Cytogenetics and evolution. New York: Academic Press.

Clemens, W. A. 1979. Marsupialia. In: Mesozoic mammals: The first two-thirds of mammalian history, eds. J. A. Lillegraven, Z. Kielan-Jaworowska, W. A. Clemens, pp. 192-220. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Clemens, W. A., Lillegraven, J. A., Lindsay, E. H., Simpson, G. G. 1979. Where, when and what: A survey of known Mesozoic mammal distribution. In: Mesozoic mammals: The first two-thirds of mammalian history, eds. J. A. Lillegraven, Z. Kielan-Jaworowska, W. A. Clemens, pp. 7-58. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Close, R. L., Bell, J. N. 1997. Fertile hybrids in two genera of wallabies: Petrogale and Thylogale. J. Hered., 88: 393-397.

Close, R. L., Bell, J. N., Dollin, A. E., Harding, H. R. 1996. Spermatogenesis and synaptonemal complexes of hybrid rock-wallabies Petrogale (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). J. Hered., 87: 96-107.

Coffing, K., Feibel, C., Leakey, M. and Walker, A. 1994. Four million year old hominids from East Lake Turkana, Kenya. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 93: 55-65.

Cohen, B. L., et al. 1997. Enigmatic phylogeny of the skuas (Aves: Stercorariidae). Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., ser. B, 264(1379): 181-190.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A., Rylands, A. B. 1993. Experimental multiple hybridism and natural hybrids among Callithrix species from eastern Brazil. In: Marmosets and tamarins: Systematics, ecology, and behaviour, ed. A. B. Rylands, pp. 95-120. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Colard, J.-C. 1992. A propos de la contribution du Tarin rouge et du Chardonneret dans l'obtention du Canari mosaïque. Journal des Oiseaux, 257: 19-20.

Colbert, E. H. 1948, The mammal-like reptile Lycaenops. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 89: 353-404,

Cole, C. J., Dessauer, H. C., Barrowclough, G. F. 1988. Hybrid origin of a unisexual species of whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus neomexicanus, in western North America: New evidence and a review. Am. Mus. Nov., no. 2905.

Cole, C. J., Dessauer, H. C., Markezich, A. L. 1993. Missing link found: The second ancestor of Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Squamata: teiidae), a South American unisexual lizard of hybrid origin. Am. Mus. Nov., no. 3055.

Cole, C. J., Dessauer, H. C., Townsend, C. R., Arnold, M. G. 1995. Kentropyx borckiana (Squamata: Teiidae): A unisexual lizard of hybrid origin in the Guiana region, South America. Am. Mus. Nov., no. 3145.

Cole, L. J., Hollander, W. F. 1950. Hybrids of pigeon by Ring Dove. Am. Nat., 84: 275-307.

Coleman, W. 1962. Georges Cuvier, Zoologist. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Family Psittacidae (parrots). In: Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. IV, eds. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, pp. 280-479. Barcelona: Lynx.

Colman, W. 1964. Georges Cuvier, Zoologist. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Conant, D. S., Cooper-Driver, B. 1980. Autogamous allohomoploidy in Alsophila and Nephelea (Cyanteaceae): A new hypothesis for speciation in homosporous ferns. Am. J. Bot., 67: 1269-1288.

Constantine, D. G. 1961. Spotted Bat and Big-free-tailed Bat in northern New Mexico. Southwest. Natur., 6: 92-97.

Coombs, W. P. 1984. The ankylosauria. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, New York.

Cooper, S. J. B., Reardon, T. B., Skilins, J. 1998. Molecular systematics of Australian rhinolophid bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae). Austral. J. Zool., 46: 203-220.

Cope, E. D. 1869. On the reptilian orders Pythonomorpha and Streptosauria. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 12: 250- 266.

Cope, E. D. 1895. Fourth contribution to the marine fauna of the United States, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 34: 135-155.

Cordes, J. E., Walker, J. M. 2006. Evolutionary and systematic implications of skin histocompatibility among parthenogenetic teiid lizards: Three color pattern classes of Aspidoscelis dixoni and one of Aspidoscelis tesselata. Copeia, 2006: 14-26.

Corti, M., Ciabatti, C. M. 1990. The structure of a chromosomal hybrid zone of house mice (Mus) in central Italy: Cytogenetic analysis. Z. Zool. Syst. Evol., 28: 277-288.

Cothran, E. G., Honeycutt, R. L. 1984. Chromosomal differentiation of hybridizing ground squirrels (Spermophilus mexicanus and S. tridecemlineatus). J. Mammal., 65: 118-122.

Coyne, A. J., Orr, H. A. 1998. The evolutionary genetics of speciation. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., , B, 353: 287-305.

Coyne, A. J., Orr, H. A. 2004. Speciation. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.

Coyne, J. A., Meyers, W., Crittenden, A. P., Sniegowski, P. 1993. The fertility effects of pericentric inversions in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics,134: 487-496.

Crabtree, C. B., Buth, D. G. 1987. Biochemical systematics of the catostomid genus Catostomus: Assessment of C. clarki, C. plebius, and C. discobolus including the Zuni sucker, C. d. yarrowi. Copeia, 1987: 843-854.

Cracraft, J. 1983. Species concepts and speciation analysis. Ornithology, 1: 159-187.

Cracraft, J. 1989. Speciation and its ontology. In: Speciation and its consequences, eds. D. Otte, J. A. Endler, pp. 3-27. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.

Crew, F. A. E., Koller, P. C. 1936. Genetical and cytological studies of the intergeneric hybrid of Cairina moschata and Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, B, 56: 210-241.

Cribiu, E. P., Matejka, M., Denis, B., Mahler, X. 1988. Étude chromosomique d'un hybride chèvre × mouton fertile. Génét. Sélect. Évol., 20: 379-386.

Crochet, J. Y. 1986. Kasserinotherium tunisiense nov. gen., nov. sp., troisième marsupial découvert en Afrique (Eocène inférieur de Tunisie). C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. II, 14: 923-926.

Cuellar, O. 1976. Cytology of meiosis in the triploid gynogenetic salamander Ambystoma tremblayi. Chromosoma, 58: 355-364.

Culotta, E. 1999. A new human ancestor? Science 284: 572-573.

Cuny, R., Malacinski, G. M. 1985. Banding differences between tiger salamander and axolotl chromosomes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol., 27: 510-514.

Cuvier, G. (Baron), Daubenton, M., Vicq-d'Azyr, M., de Saint-Lambert M. 1839-1844. Oeuvres complètes de Buffon: Avec des extraits de Daubenton, et la classification de Cuvier. Paris: Société des Publications illustrées.

Cuvier, G. (Baron). 1798. Tableau è�lè�mentaire de l'histoire naturelle des animaux. Paris: Baudouin.

Cuvier, G. (Baron). 1812. Récherches sur les ossemens fossiles des quadrupèdes. Paris: Deterville.

Cuvier, G. (Baron). 1817. Le règne animal distribué d'après son organisation. Paris: Deterville.

Cuvier, G. (Baron). 1818. Essay on the theory of the earth. New York: Kirk & Mercein.

Cuvier, G. (Baron). 1827. Essay on the theory of the earth. 5th ed. London: T. Cadell.

Czapik, R. W. 1985. Apomictic embryo sacs in diploid Waldsteinia geoides. Acta biol. Cracoviensia (Krakow), Ser. Bot., 27: 29-37.

Dagg, A. I. 1962. The subspeciation of the giraffe. J. Mammal., 43: 550-552.

Dagg, A. I. 1968. External features of the giraffe. Mammalia, 32: 657-669.

Dain, A. R. 1980. A cytogenetic study of a barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) × domestic goat (Capra hircus) hybrid. Experientia, 36: 1358-1360.

Darevsky, I. S. 1992. Evolution and ecology of parthenogenesis in reptiles. In: Herpetology: Current research on the biology of amphibians and reptiles, ed. K. Adler, pp. 21-29. England: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Darevsky, I. S., Kupriyanova, L. A., Uzzell, T. 1985. Parthenogenesis in reptiles. In: Biology of the reptilia, eds. C. Gans, F. Billett, vol. XV, pp. 411-526. New York: Wiley.

Darlington, C. D. 1932. Recent Advances in Cytology. 1st ed. London: Churchhill.

Darlington, C. D. 1937. Recent Advances in Cytology. 2nd ed. London: Churchhill.

Darlington, C. D. 1939. The evolution of genetic systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Darrow, G. M. 1966. The strawberry: history, breeding and physiology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Dart, R. 1925. Australopithecus africanus. The man-ape of South Africa. Nature, 115: 195-199.

Dart, R. 1953. The predatory transition from ape to man. International Anthropological and Linguistic Review, 1: 201-219.

Darwin, C. R. 1839. Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Journal and remarks. 1832-1836. London: Henry Colburn.

Darwin, C. R. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of the favored races in the struggle for life. 1st ed. London: John Murray.

Darwin, C. R. 1868. The variation of animals and plants under domestication. 1st ed. London: John Murray.

Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of the favored races in the struggle for life. 5th ed. London: John Murray.

Darwin, C. R. 1871. The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray.

Darwin, C. R. 1872. On the origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of the favored races in the struggle for life. 6th ed. London: John Murray.

Darwin, C. R. 1875. The variation of animals and plants under domestication. 2nd ed. London: John Murray.

Darwin, F. ed. 1887. The life and letters of Charles Darwin. London: John Murray.

Darwin, F. ed. 1909. The foundations of "The Origin of Species." Two essays written in 1842 and 1844. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Darwin, F., Seward, A. C. eds. 1903. More letters of Charles Darwin. London: John Murray.

Dasgupta, S. 1962. Induction of triploidy by hydrostatic pressure. J. Exp. Zool., 151: 105-116.

Daudin, H. 1926. De Linné à Jussieu; méthodes de la classification et idée de série en botanique et en zoologie (1740-1790). Paris: F. Alcan.

David, C. J., Pandian, T. J. 2006. Maternal and paternal hybrid triploids of tetras. J. Fish Biol., 69: 1102-1119.

David, L., Blum, S., Feldman, M. W., Lavi, U., Hillel, J. 2003. Recent duplication of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) genome as revealed by analyses of microsatellite loci. Mol. Biol. Evol., 20: 1425-1434.

Dawley, R. M., Goddard, K. A. 1988. Diploid-triploid mosaics among unisexual hybrids of the minnows Phoxinus eos and Phoxinus neogaeus. Evolution, 42: 649-659.

Dawley, R. M., Schultz, R. J., Goddard, K. A. 1987. Clonal reproduction and polyploidy in unisexual hybrids of Phoxinus eos and Phoxinus neogaeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Copeia, 1987: 275-283.

Dawson, W. D. 1965. Fertility and size inheritance in a Peromyscus species cross. Evolution, 19: 44-55.

de Buffrénil, V., Mazin, J. 1990. Bone histology of the ichthyosaurs: Comparative data and functional interpretation. Paleobiology, 16: 435-447.

de Heinzelin, J., Clark, J. D., White, T., Hart, W., Renne, P., WoldeGabriel, G., Beyene, Y., Vrba, E. 1999. Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. Science, 284(5414): 625-629.

de Deguileville, G. 1975. The pilgrimage of the lyf of the manhode: From the French of Guillaume de Deguilleville. New York : AMS Press.

de Faveri, A. 1989. Obtention de variétés nouvelles par hybridation. Journal des Oiseaux, 225: 15-16.

de Haan, A. A., Maceira, N. O., Lumaret, R., Delay, J. 1992. Production of 2n gametes in diploids subspecies of Dactylis glomerata L. 2. Occurrence and frequency of 2n eggs. Ann. Bot., 69: 345-350.

de Vries, H. 1901-1903. Die Mutationstheorie. Versuche und Beobachtungen über die Entstehung der Arten im Pflanzenreich. Leipzig: Veit. [English translation: 1909-1910. The mutation theory: Experiments and observations on the origin of species in the vegetable kingdom. translators J. B. Farmer, A. D. Darbishire. Chicago: Open Court].

de Vries, H. 1902. The origin of species by mutation. Science, 15: 721-729.

de Vries, H. 1905. Species and varieties: Their origin by mutation. Chicago: Open Court.

Delany, M. E., Dietert, R. R., Bloom, S. E. 1988. MHC-chromosome dosage effects: evidence for increased expression of Ia glycoprotein and alteration of B cell subpopulations in neonatal aneuploid chickens. Immunogenetics, 27: 24-30.

Delneri, B. D., Colson, I., Grammenoudi, S., Roberts, I. N., Louis, E. J., Oliver, S. G. 2003. engineering evolution to study speciation in yeasts. Nature, 422: 68-72).

DeLong, R. L. 1982. Population biology of northern fur seals at San Miguel Island, California. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

Delport, W., Kemp, A. C., Ferguson, J. W. H. 2004. Structure of an African Red-billed Hornbill (Tockus erythrorhynchus rufirostris and T. e. damarensis) hybrid zone as revealed by morphology, behavior, and breeding biology. Auk, 121: 565-586.

DeMarais, B. D., Dowling, T. E., Douglas, M. E., Minckley, W. L., Marsh, P. C. 1992. Origin of Gila seminuda (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) through introgressive hybridization: Implications for evolution and conservation. PNAS, 89: 2747-2751.

Demeré, T. A. 1986. The fossil whale, Balaenoptera davidsonii (Cope 1872), with a review of other neogene species of Balaenoptera (Cetacea: Mysticeti). Mar. Mamm. Sci., 2: 277-298.

Denis, B., Mather, X., Seegers, H., Darre, R., Berland, H. 1987. Note sûr et à propos d'un hybride chèvre × mouton fertile. Élevage et Insémination, 218: 3-10.

DenNijs, T. P. M., Peloquin, S. J. 1977. 2n gametes in potato species and their function in sexual polyploidization. Euphytica, 26: 585-600.

Deonier, R. C.,Tavaré, S., Waterman, M. S. 2005. Computational genome analysis: An introduction. New York: Springer.

Desmond, A., Moore, J. 1991. Darwin. New York: W. W. Norton.

Dessauer, H. C., Reeder, T. W., Cole, C. J., Knight, A. 1996. Rapid screening of DNA diversity using dot-blot technology and allele-specific oligonucleotides: Maternity of hybrids and unisexual clones of hybrid origin (Lizards, Cnemidophorus). Mol. Phylog. Evol., 6: 366-372.

Detlefson, J. A. 1914. Genetic studies on a cavy species cross. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Dev, V. 1987. Speciation in the Aedes (Stegomia) scutellaris group (Diptera: Cucilidae): Contributing factors. Mosq. Syst., 19: 119-126.

deWet, J. M. J. 1980. Origins of polyploids. In: Polyploidy: Biological relevance, ed. W. H. Lewis, pp. 3-15. New York: Plenum Press.

deWet, J. M. J., Harlan, J. R. 1974. Tripsacum-maize interaction: A novel cytogenetic system. Genetics, 78: 493-502.

Dhar, R., Sharma, N., Sharma, B. 2006. Ovule abortion in relation to breeding system in four Trifolium species. Curr. Science, 91: 482-485.

Dicey, E. 1863. Six months in the Federal States. Cambridge: Macmillan and Co.

Digby, L. 1912. The cytology of Primula kewensis and of other related Primula hybrids. Ann. Bot., 26: 357-388.

Diggles, S. 1867. The ornithology of Australia. Part 15. Brisbane: Diggles.

Dingerkus, G., Howell, M. W. 1976. Karyotypic analysis and evidence of tetraploidy in the North American paddlefish, Polydon spathula. Science, 194: 842-844.

Dittman, D. L., Cardiff, S. W. 2003. "Let's take a closer look" -- Louisiana swallows. LOS News, 200: 5-12.

Dixon, D., Cox, B., Savage, R. J. G., Gardiner, B. eds. 1988. The Macmillan illustrated encyclopedia of dinosaurs and prehistoric animals. New York: Macmillan.

Dobzhansky, T. 1933. On the sterility of interracial hybrids in Drosophila pseudoobscura. PNAS, 19, 397-403

Dobzhansky, T. 1935. The Y chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics, 20: 366-376.

Dobzhansky, T. 1937a. Genetics and origin of species. New York: Columbia University Press.

Dobzhansky, T. 1937b. What is a species? Scientia, pp. 280-286.

Dobzhansky, T. 1937c. Further data on the variation of the Y chromosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics, 22: 340-346.

Dobzhansky, T. 1940a. Catastrophism versus evolutionism. Science, 92: 356-358.

Dobzhansky, T. 1940b. Speciation as a stage in evolutionary divergence. Am. Nat., 74: 312-321.

Dobzhansky, T. 1941. Genetics and origin of species. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press.

Dobzhansky, T., Ayala, F. J., Stebbins, G. L., Valentine, J. W. 1977. Evolution. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co.

Dobzhansky, T., Socolov, D. 1939. Structure and variation in the chromosomes of Drosophila azteca. J. Hered., 30: 3-19.

Dobzhansky, T., Sturtevant, A. H. 1938. Inversion in chromosomes of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics, 23: 28-64.

Doolittle, W. F. 1999. Phylogenetic classification and the universal tree. Science, 284: 2124-2128.

Doolittle, W. F. 2000. Uprooting the tree of life. Scientific American, 260: 90-95.

Dorofeyeva, E. A. 2001. Use of karyotype characteristics for the identification of reciprocal hybrids of lake Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and lake trout Salmo trutta (Salmonidae). Trudy Zool. Inst., 287: 221-231.

Dorsey, E. 1936. Induced polyploidy in wheat and rye. Chromosome doubling in Triticum, Secale and Triticum-Secale hybrids produced by temperature changes. J. Hered., 27: 155-160.

Dosselman, D. J., Schaalje, G. B., Sites, J. W. 1998. An analysis of fluctuating asymmetry in a hybrid zone between two chromosome races of the Sceloporus grammicus complex (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) in central Mexico. Herpetologica, 54: 434-447.

Dowler, R. C. 1989. Cytogenetic studies of three chromosomal races of pocket gophers (Geomys bursarius complex). J. Mammal., 70: 253-266.

Dowling, T. E., DeMarais, B. D. 1993. Evolutionary significance of introgressive hybridization in cyprinid fishes. Nature, 362: 444-446.

Downs, F. L. 1978. Unisexual Ambystoma from the Bass Islands of Lake Erie. Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan.

Drosopoulos, S. 1976. Triploid pseudogamous biotype of the leafhopper Muellerianella fairmairei. Nature, 263: 499-500.

Drosopoulos, S. 1978. Laboratory synthesis of a pseudogamous triploid species of the genus Muellerianella (Homoptera, Delphacidae). Evolution, 32: 916-920.

DuHamel du Monceau, H.-L. 1728. Recherches sur les causes de la multiplication des espèces de fruits. Hist. mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. Paris, pp. 338-354

Duncan, K. E., Istock, C. A., Graham, J. B., Ferguson, N. 1989. Genetic exchange between Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis: Variable hybrid stability and the nature of the bacterial species. Evolution, 43: 1585-1609.

Duncker, H. 1927a. Der Ausfall des Fettfarbstoffes in den epidermoidalen Gebilden auf Grund erblicher Veranlagung (Alipochromismus) bei Kanarienvögeln, Kanarienbastarden und Wellensittichen. Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungsl., 45: 41-86.

Duncker, H. 1927b. Bastarde von Kapuzenzeisig und weissem Kanarienvogel. Vögel ferner Länder, 4: 67-74.

Duncker, H. 1928. Genetik der Kanarienvögel. Bibl. genet., 4: 37-140.

Duncker, H. 1934. Vererbung bei Buntvögeln (Kapuzenzeisig-Kanarienvogelkreuzungen, verschiedene Kanarienvogelrassen, Gould Amandinen Wellensittich-Halbseiter) mit Demonstration lebenden Materials. Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungsl., 67: 259-260.

Dunn, J. L., Garrett, K. L. 1997. A field guide to the warblers of North America. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Dvorak, J., Luo, M.-C., Yang, Z.-L., Zhang, H. B. 1998. The structure of the Aegilops tauschii gene pool and the evolution of hexaploid wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet., 97: 657-670.

Echelle, A. A., Connor, P. J. 1989. Rapid, geographically extensive genetic introgression after secondary contact between two pupfish species (Cyprinodon, Cyprinodontidae). Evolution, 43: 717-727.

Echelle, A. A., Echelle, A. F. 1978. The Pecos River Pupfish, (Cyprinodontidae), with comments on its evolutionary origin. Copeia, 1978: 569-582.

Ehrlich, P. R., Raven, P. R. 1969. Differentiation of populations. Science, 165: 1228-1232.

Ehrlich, P. R., Wilson, E. O. 1991. Biodiversity studies: Science and policy. Science, 253: 758-762.

Eigsti, O. 1938. A cytological study of colchicine effects in the induction of polyploidy in plants. PNAS, 24: 56-63.

Eldredge, N. 1971. The allopatric model and phylogeny in Paleozoic invertebrates. Evolution, 25: 156-167.

Eldredge, N. 1995. Reinventing Darwin: The great debate at the high table of evolutionary theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Eldridge, M. D. B. 1991. Chromosomal rearrangements and speciation in rock wallabies. Ph.D. Thesis, Macquarie University.

Eldridge, M. D. B., Close, R. L. 1992. Taxonomy of rock wallabies, Petrogale (Marsuialia: Macropodidae). I. A revision of the eastern Petrogale with the description of three new species. Austral. J. Zool., 40: 605-625.

Eldridge, M. D. B., Close, R. L., Johnston, P G. 1990. Chromosomal rearrangements in rock wallabies Petrogale (Marsuplialia: Macropodidae). III. G-banding analysis of Petrogale inornata and P. penicillata. Genome, 33: 798-802.

Eldridge, M. D. B., Dolli A. E., Johnston, P. G., Close, R. L., Murray, J. D. 1988. Chromosomal rearrangements in rock-wallabies, Petrogale (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). The Petrogale assimilis complex G-banding and SC complex analysis. Cytogen. Cell Gen., 48: 228-232.

Eldridge, M. D. B., Wilson, A. C. C., Metcalfe, C. J., Dollin, A. E., Bell, J. N., Johnson, P. M., Johnston, P. G., Close, R. L. 2001. Taxonomy of rock-wallabies, Petrogale (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). III. Molecular data confirms the species status of the Purple-necked Rock-wallaby (Petrogale purpureicollis Le Souef). Austral. J. Zool., 49: 323-343.

Ellerström, S., Zagorcheva, L. 1977. Sterility and apomictic embryo-sac formation in Raphanobrassica. Hereditas, 87: 107-120.

Elliot, H. (translator) 1914. Zoological Philosophy. (English translation of Lamarck, J.-B. 1809. Philosophie zoologique). London: Macmillan.

Elstrand, N. C. 1992. Gene flow by pollen: Implications for plant conservation genetics. Oikos, 63: 77-86.

Emry, R. J. 1970. A North American Oligocene pangolin and other additions to the Pholidota. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 142: 455-510.

Endler, J. A. 1973. Gene flow and population differentiation. Science, 179: 243-250.

Endler, J. A. 1977. Geographic variation, speciation and clines. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Epstein, H. 1971. The origin of the domestic animals of Africa. New York: Africana.

Eriksson, G. 1983. Linnaeus the botanist. In: Linnaeus: The man and his work, ed., T. Frängsmyr, pp. 63-109. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Eriksson, J., Larson, G., Gunnarsson, U., Bed'hom, B., Tixier-Boichard, M., et al. 2008. Identification of the yellow skin gene reveals a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken. PLoS Genet., 4(2): e1000010. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000010

Ernst, A. 1918. Die Bastardierung als Ursache der Apogamie im Pflanzenreiche. Eine Hypothese zur experimentellen Vererbungs-und Abstammungslehre. Jena: Fischer.

Esuperanzi, R. 2005. Los fringillidos: Jilgueros, pardillos, verderones y otros pájaros silvestres. Barcelona: Editorial Hispano Europea S. A.

Evans, K. 1966. Observations on a hybrid between the Sharp-tailed Grouse and the Greater Prairie Chicken. Auk, 83: 128-129.

Fankhauser, G. 1941. The frequency of polyploidy and other spontaneous aberrations of chromosome number among larvae of the newt, Triturus viridescens. PNAS, 27: 507-512.

Fankhauser, G. 1945. The effects of changes in chromosome number on amphibian development. Q. Rev. Biol., 20: 20-78.

Farlow, J. O., Brett-Surman, M. K. 1997. The complete dinosaur. Bloomington : Indiana University Press.

Fechheimer, N. S., Isakova, G. K., Belyaev, D. K. 1983. Mechanism involved in the spontaneous occurrence of diploid triploid chimerism in the mink (Mustela vison) and chicken (Gallus domesticus). Cytogen. Cell Gen., 35: 238 243.

Fechheimer, N. S., Jaffe, W. P. 1966. Method for the display of avian chromosomes. Nature, 211: 773-774.

Federley, H. 1931. Chromosomen analyse der reciproken Bastarde zwischen Pygaera pigra and P. curtula sowie ihrer Rückkreuzungsbastarde. Z. Zellforsch. und Mikroskop. Anat., 12: 772-816.

Fedyk, S., Chętnicki, W., Banaszek, A. 1991. Genetic differentiation of Polish populations of Sorex araneus L. III. Interchromosomal recombination in a hybrid zone. Evolution, 45: 1384-1392.

Fedyk, S., Krasinska, M. 1980. Bisoniana. 75. Spermatogenesis in backcross generations of European bison and domestic cattle hybrids. Acta Theriol., 25: 201-212.

Fedyk, S., Zajkowska, M., Chętnicki, W. 1993. Study of a contact between two chromosomally monomorphic races of Sorex araneus L. (Common Shrew). Heredity, 71: 221-226.

Felber, F. 1991. Establishment of a tetraploid cytotype in a diploid population: Effect of relative fitness of cytotypes. J. Evol. Biol., 4: 194-207.

Fenton, M. B. 1992. Bats. New York: Facts on File.

Ferguson, D., Sang, T. 2001. Speciation through homoploid hybridization between allotetaploids in peonies (Paeonia). PNAS, 98: 3915-3919.

Ferguson-Smith, M. 2007. The evolution of sex chromosomes and sex determination in vertebrates and the key role of DMRT1. Sexual Development, 1: 2-11.

Ferguson-Smith, M. A, Yang, F., O'Brien, P. C. M. 1998. Comparative mapping using chromosome sorting and painting. ILAR Journal, 39: 68-76.

Ferreira, D. C., Chiachio, M. C., Takako, A. K., Andreata, A. A., Foresti, F., Oliveira, C. 2005. Comparative cytogenetics of nine species of Hypoptopomatinae (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Loricariidae): The importance of structural rearrangements in chromosome evolution. Caryologia, 58: 387-395.

Ferrell, R. E., Morizot, D. C., Horn, J., Carley, C. J. 1980. Biochemical markers in a species endangered by introgression: The Red Wolf. Biochem. Genet., 18: 39-49.

Ferrier, V., Jaylet, A. 1978. Induction of triploidy in the newt Pleurodeles waltlii by heat shock or hydrostatic pressure. Interpretation of the different types of ploidy using a chromosomal marker. Chromosoma, 69: 47-63.

Fidalgo, F., Meo Guzmán, L., Politis, G., Salemme, M., Tonni, E. 1986. Investigaciones arqueológicas en el sitio 2 de Arroyo Seco (Pdo. de Tres Arroyos, Pcia. de Buenos Aires, República Argentina). In: New evidence for the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas, ed. A. Bryan, pp. 221-269, Orono: Center for the Study of Early Man, University of Maine.

Finn, F. 1907. Ornithological and other oddities. London: John Lane.

Firouz, E. 2006. The complete fauna of Iran. London: I. B. Tauris.

Fischberg, M., Kobel, H. R. 1978. Two new polyploid Xenopus species from western Uganda. Experientia, 34: 1012-1014.

Fisher, R. A. 1930. The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Fitzpatrick, J. W. 2004. Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers). In: Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. IX, eds. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, D. Christie, pp. 170-463. Barcelona: Lynx.

Flannery, T. 1995. Mammals of New Guinea. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Focke, W. O. 1881. Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge. Berlin: Bornträger.

Fooden, J. 1997. Tail length variation in Macaca fascicularis and M. mulatta. Primates, 38: 221-231.

Ford, C. E., Clegg, H. M. 1969. Reciprocal translocation. British Medical Bulletin, 25: 110-114.

Ford, J. 1987. Hybrid zones in Australian birds. Emu, 87: 158-178.

Forejt, J. 1996. Hybrid sterility in the mouse. Trends Genet., 12: 412-417.

Forshaw, J. M. 1973. Parrots of the world. Melbourne: Lansdowne.

Forshaw, J. M. 1981. Australian parrots. Melbourne: Lansdowne.

Forsyth-Major, C. J. 1893. On some Miocene squirrels. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 179-215.

Foster, R. C. 1937. A cyto-taxonomic survey of the North American species of Iris. Contributions of the Gray Herbarium, 119: 3-82.

Fox, R. C. 1991. Melaniella timosa n. gen. and sp., an unusual mammal from the Paleocene of Alberta. Can. J. Earth Sci., 21: 1335-1338.

Fraas, E. 1904. Neue Zeuglodonten aus dem unteren Mitteleocan vom Mokattam bei Kairo. Geol. u. Palaeont. Abhandl. (Jena), 10, 199-220.

Frair, W., Ackman, R. G., Mrosovsky, N. 1972. Body temperature of Dermochelys coriacea: Warm turtle from cold water. Science, 177: 791-793.

Francisco, M. R., Galetti, P. M. 2001. Cytotaxonomic considerations on Neotropical Psittacidae birds and description of three new karyotypes. Hereditas, 134: 225-228.

Franke, R. 1975. Über das Auftreten von unreduzierten Gameten bei Angiospermen. Arch. Züchtungsf., 5: 201-208.

Franzke, A., Mummenhoff, K. 1999. Recent hybrid speciation in Cardamine (Brassicaceae) -- conversion of nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences in statu nascendi. Theor. Appl. Genet., 98: 831-834.

Fredga, K., Narain, Y. 2000. The complex hybrid zone between the Abisko and Sidensjo chromosome races of Sorex araneus in Sweden. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 70: 285-307.

Freeburg, V. O. 1918. The art of photoplay making. New York: Macmillan.

Friant, M. 1933. Contribution à l'étude de la différentiation des dents jugales chez les mammifères: Essai d'une theorie de la dentition. Paris: Masson et cie.

Fries, T. M., Hulth. J. M. 1907-1922. Bref och skrifvelser af och till Carl von Linné. Stockholmz: Aktiebolaget Ljus.

Frisch, J. E., Drinkwater, R., Harrison, B., Johnson, S. 1997. Classification of the southern African Sanga and East African Shorthorn Zebu. Anim. Genet., 28: 77-83.

Frith, C. B. 2006. A history and reassessment of the unique but missing specimen of Rawnsley's Bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus rawnsleyi, Diggles 1867, (Aves: Ptilonorhynchidae). Hist. Biol., 18: 57-68.

Frith, C. B., Beehler, B. M. 1998. The birds of paradise: Paradisaeidae. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fritsche, F., Kaltz, O. 2000. Is the Prunella (Lamiaceae) hybrid zone structured by an environmental gradient? Evidence from a reciprocal transplant experiment. Am. J. Bot., 87: 995-1003.

Frost, R. 1914. North of Boston. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Fu, J., MacCulloch, R. D., Murphy, R. W., Darevsky, I. S., Kupriyanova, L. A., Danielyan, F. 1998. The parthenogenetic rock lizard Lacerta unisexualis: An example of limited genetic polymorphism. J. Mol. Evol., 46: 127-130.

Fujita, K. 1990. Species preference by infant macaques with controlled social experience. Int. J. Primatol., 11: 553-573.

Fulgione, D., Esposito, A., Rusch, C. E., Milone, M. 2001. Song clinal variability in Passer italiae, a species of probable hybrid origins. Avocetta, 24: 107-112.

Fuhlrott, J. C. 1857. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preußischen Rheinlande und Westphalens, 14, Corr. Bl., 50.

Fuhlrott, J. C. 1859. Menschliche Überreste aus einer Felsengrotte des Düsselthals. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preußischen Rheinlande und Westphalens, 16: 131-153.

Furlong, R. F., Holland, P. W. H. 2004. Polyploidy in vertebrate ancestry: Ohno and beyond. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 82: 425-430.

Futuyma, D. J. 1986. Evolutionary Biology. Sunderland: Sinauer.

Futuyma, D. J., Mayer, G. C. 1980. Nonallopatric speciation in animals. Syst. Zool., 19: 254-271.

Gabunia, L. K., Shevyreva, N. C., Gabunia, U. D. 1985. [On the first discovery of a marsupial in Asia]. Dokl. Akad. nauk SSSR, 281: 684-685.

Galik, K., Senut, B., Pickford, M., Gommery, D., Treil, J., Kuperavage, A. J., Eckhardt, R. B. 2004. External and internal morphology of the BAR 1002'00 Orrorin tugenensis femur. Science, 305: 1450-1453.

Gallardo, M. H., Bickham, J. W., Honeycutt, R. L., Ojeda, R. A., Köhler, N. 1999. Discovery of tetraploidy in a mammal. Nature, 401: 341.

Gallardo, M. H., Kausel, G., Jiménez, A., Bacquet, C., González, C., Figueroa, J., Köhler, N., Ojeda, R. 2004. Whole-genome duplication in South American desert rodents (Octodontidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 82: 443-451.

Gallez, G. P., Gottlieb, L. D. 1982. Genetic evidence for the hybrid origin of the diploid plant Stephanomeria diegensis. Evolution, 36: 1158-1167.

Galton, F. 1869. Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences. London: Macmillan.

Gardner, A. L., Patton, J. L. 1972. Karyotypic variation in oryzomyine rodents (Cricetinae) with comments on chromosomal evolution in the neotropical cricetine complex. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology (Louisiana State University), no. 49.

Gardner, J. P. A. 1997. Hybridisation in the sea. Adv. Mar. Biol., 31: 1-78.

Gates, R. R. 1909. The stature and chromosomes of Oenothera gigas, De Vries. Arch. Zellforsch., 3: 525-552.

Gava, A., de Freitas, T. R. O. 2002. Characterization of a hybrid zone between chromosomally divergent populations of Ctenomys minutus (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae). J. Mammal., 83: 843-851.

Gava, A., de Freitas, T. R. O. 2004. Microsatellite analysis of a hybrid zone between chromosomally divergent populations of Ctenomys minutus from southern Brazil (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae). J. Mammal., 85: 1201-1206.

Geist, N. R., Carpenter, S., and Stewart, J. D. 2002. Chemical and morphological analysis of soft tissue preservation in a mosasaur. J. Vert. Paleont. 22 (Supplement to 3): 57A.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. 1796. Mammifères. Mémoire sur les rapports naturels des Makis Lemur. Magazin encycl., 1: 20-50.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. 1833. Le degré d'influence du monde ambiánt pour modifier les formes animals. Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Inst. France, 12: 63-92.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. 1847. Vie, travaux et doctrine scientifique d'Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Paris: P. Bertrand.

Gerrasimova, H. 1939. Chromosome alterations as a factor of divergence of forms. I. New experimentally produced strains of C. tectorum which are physiologicallly isolated from the original forms owing to reciprocal translocation. Dokl. Akad. nauk SSSR, 25: 148-154.

Ghirardelli, E. 1968. Some aspects of the biology of chaetognaths. Adv. Mar. Biol., 6: 271-375.

Gibbons, W. 1995. Savannah River Ecology Lab (personal communication).

Gibson, P. H. 1981. Gametogenesis in the cirratulid polychaetes Dodecaceria concharum and D. caulleryi. J. Zool. (London), 193: 355-370.

Gilbert, A. N. 1995. Tenacious nipple attachment in rodents: The sibling competition hypothesis. Anim. Behav., 50: 881-891.

Gillespie, G. D. 1985. Hybridization, introgression, and morphometric differentiation between Mallard (Anas platyrynchos) and the Grey Duck (Anas superciliosa) in Otago, New Zealand. Auk, 102: 459-469.

Gilliard, E. T. 1959. The ecology of hybridization in New Guinea honeyeaters (Aves). Am. Mus. Nov., no. 1937.

Gillispie, C. C. 1996. Genesis and geology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gilmore, D. P. 1977. The success of marsupials as introduced species. In: The biology of marsupials, eds. B. Stonehouse, D. Gilmore, pp. 169-178. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Gingerich, P. D. 1976. Paleontology and phylogeny: Patterns of evolution at the species level in early tertiary mammals. Am. J. Sci., 276: 1-28.

Gingerich, P. D., Wells, N. A., Russell, D. E., Ibrahim Shah, S. M. 1983. Origin of whales in epicontinental remnant seas. Science, 220: 403-406.

Giseke, P. D. ed. 1792. Caroli a Linné Prælectiones in ordines naturales plantarum: e proprio et Jo. Chr. Fabricii ... edidit Paulus Diet. Giseke ... Hamburgi: Hoffmann.

Goddard, K. A., Dawley, R. M. 1990. Clonal inheritance of a diploid nuclear genome by a hybrid freshwater minnow (Phoxinus eos-neogaeus, Pisces: Cyprinidae). Evolution, 44: 1052-1065.

Goddard, K. A., Dawley, R. M., Dowling, T. E. 1989. Origin and genetic relationships of diploid, triploid and diploid-triploid mosaic biotypes in the Phoxinus eosneogaeus unisexual complex. In: Ecology and evolution of unisexual vertebrates, eds. R. M. Dawley, J. P. Bogart, pp. 268-280. Albany: New York State Museum.

Goddard, K. A., Megwinoff, O., Wessner, L. L., Giaimo, F. 1998. Confirmation of gynogenesis in Phoxinus eos-neogaeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae). J. Hered., 89: 151-157.

Goddard, K. A., Schultz, R. J. 1993. Aclonal reproduction by polyploid members of the clonal hybrid species Phoxinus eos-neogaeus (Cyprinidae). Copeia, 1993: 650-660.

Goldfuss, A. 1831. Beiträge zur Kenntnis verschiednener Reptilen der Vorzeit. Nova Acta Acad. Leopold. Carol., 15: 61-128.

Goldman, D. H., Jansen, R. K., Cassio van den Berg, C., Leitch, I. J., Fay, M. F., Chase, M. W. 2004. Molecular and cytological examination of Calopogon (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae): Circumscription, phylogeny, polyploidy, and possible hybrid speciation. Am. J. Bot., 91: 707-723.

Goldman, M. A., LoVerde, P. T., Chrisman, C. L. 1983. Hybrid origin of polyploidy in freshwater snails of the genus Bulinus (Mollusca, Planorbidae). Evolution, 37: 592-600.

Goldschmidt, R. B. 1933. Some aspects of evolution. Science, 78: 539-547.

Goldschmidt, R. B. 1952. Evolution as viewed by one geneticist. Am. Scientist, 40: 84-98.

Goldschmidt, R. B. 1982. The material basis of evolution. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Goldsmith, O. 1763. (Preface for: A new and accurate system of natural history, by R. Brookes, 1763) In: 1966. Collected works of Oliver Goldsmith, vol. 5. ed. A. Friedman. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Golubic, S., Knoll, A. H. 1992. Prokaryotes. In: Fossil prokaryotes and protists, ed. J. H. Lipps, pp. 51-76. Boston: Blackwell.

Gomez, Z. J., Vogler, A. P., Funk, D. J. 2004. Diagnosing an overlooked North American taxon: Biological observations and mitochondrial insights on Calligrapha suturella Schaeffer, new status (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 97: 28-36.

Gompert, Z., Fordyce, J. A., Forister, M. L., Shapiro, A. M., Nice, C. C. 2006. Homoploid hybrid speciation in an extreme habitat. Science, 314: 1923-1925.

Good, T. P., Ellis, J., Annett, C. A., Pierotti, R. 2000. Bounded hybrid superiority in an avian hybrid zone: effects of mate, diet, and habitat choice. Evolution, 54: 1774-1783.

Goodfellow, W. L., Hocutt, C. H., Morgan, R. P., Stauffer, J. R. 1984. Biochemical assessment of the taxonomic status of Rhinichthys bowersi (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1984: 652-659.

Goodfriend, G. A., Gould, S. J. 1996. Paleontology and chronology of two evolutionary transitions by hybridization in the Bahamian land snail Cerion. Science, 274: 1894-1897.

Goodspeed, T. H. 1925. Parthenogenesis, partheonocarpy and phenospermy in Nicotiana. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 5: 249-272.

Goodspeed, T. H., Clausen, R. E. 1928. Interspecific hybridization in Nicotiana. VIII. The sylvestris-tomentosa-tabacum triangle and its bearing on the origin of tabacum. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 11: 245-256.

Goodwin, D. 1986. Crows of the world. London: Oxford University Press.

Gordon, G. H. 1978. Distribution of sibling species of the Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis group in Rhodesia (Mammalia: Rodentia). J. Zool. (London), 186: 397-401.

Gorman, G. C. 1965a. Interspecific karyotypic variation as a systematic character in the genus Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae). Nature, 208: 95-97.

Gorman, G. C. 1965b. The distribution of Lichanura trivirgata and the status of the species. Herpetologica, 21: 283-287.

Gorman, G. C. 1968. New karyotype data for 16 species of Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae) from Cuba, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands Herpetologica. 24: 13-21.

Gorman, G. C. 1969. Intermediate territorial display of a hybrid Anolis lizard (Sauria: Iguanidae). Z. Tierpsychol., 26: 390-393.

Gorman, G. C., Atkins, L. 1966. Chromosomal heteromorphism in some male lizards of the genus Anolis. Am. Nat., 100: 579-583.

Gorman, G. C., Atkins, L. 1967. The relationships of the Anolis of the roquet species group (Sauria: Iguanidae). II. Comparative chromosome cytology. Syst. Zool., 16: 137-143.

Gorman, G. C., Atkins, L. 1968. Natural hybridization between two sibling species of Anolis lizard: Chromosome cytology. Science, 159: 1358-1360.

Gorman, G. C., Atkins, L., Holzinger, T. 1967. New karyotypic data on 15 genera of lizards in the family Iguanidae, with a discussion of taxonomic and cytological implications. Cytogenetics, 6: 286-299.

Gorman, G. C., Dessauer, H. C. 1965. Hemoglobin and transferrin electrophoresis and relationships of island populations of Anolis lizards. Science, 150: 1454-1455.

Gorman, G. C., Licht, P., Dessauer, H. C., Boos, J. O. 1971. Reproductive failure among hybridizing Anolis lizards of Trinidad. Syst. Zool., 20: 1-18.

Gorman, G. C., Lynch, J. F. 1969. Karotypic data for five species of anguid lizards. Experientia, 25: 314-316.

Gorman, G. C., Thomas, R., Atkins, L. 1968. Intra-and interspecific chromosome variation in the lizard Anolis cristatelus and its closest relatives. Breviora, 293: 1-13.

Gould, K. G. 1993. Semen characteristics of the adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Am. J. Primatol., 29: 221-232.

Gould, S. J. 1980a. The panda's thumb. New York: W. W. Norton.

Gould, S. J. 1980b. The uses of heresy: An introduction to Richard Goldschmidt's In: The material basis of evolution, R. Goldschmidt, pp. xiii-xlii. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gould, S. J. 1987. Bushes all the way down. Nat. Hist., 96: 12-19.

Gould, S. J., Woodruff, D. S. 1990. History as a cause of area effects: An illustration from Cerion on Great Inagua, Bahamas. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 40: 67-98.

Grant, B. R., Grant, P. R. 1996. Cultural inheritance of song and its role in the evolution of Darwin's finches. Evolution, 50: 2471-2487.

Grant, B. R., Grant. P. R. 1996. High survival of Darwin's finch hybrids: Effects of beak morphology and diets. Ecology, 77: 500-509.

Grant, K. A., Grant, V. 1971a. Dynamics of clonal microspecies in cholla cactus. Evolution, 25: 144-155.

Grant, K. A., Grant, V. 1971b. Natural hybridization between the cholla cactus species Opuntia spinosior and Opuntia versicolor. PNAS, 68: 1993-1995.

Grant, P. R. 1997. Hybridization, sexual imprinting, and mate choice. Am. Nat., 149: 1-28. (Aves: Fringillidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 106: 402-409.

Grant, P. R., Grant. B. R. 1997. Genetics and the origin of bird species. PNAS, 94: 7768-7775.

Grant, V. 1952. Cytogenetics of the hybrid Gilia melefoliata × achilleaefolia. Chromosoma, 5: 372-390.

Grant, V. 1953. The role of hybridization in the evolution of the leafy-stemmed gilias. Evolution, 7: 51-64.

Grant, V. 1963. The origin of adaptations. New York: Columbia University Press.

Grant, V. 1966a. Selection for vigor and fertility in the progeny of a highly sterile species hybrid in Gilia. Genetics, 53: 757-775.

Grant, V. 1966b. The origin of a new species of Gilia in a hybridization experiment. Genetics, 54: 1189-1199.

Grant, V. 1966c. Linkage between viability and fertility in a species cross in Gilia. Genetics, 54: 867-880.

Grant, V. 1971. Plant speciation. New York: Columbia University Press.

Grant, V. 1981. Plant speciation. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press.

Grant, V. 1985. The evolutionary process. New York: Columbia University Press.

Grant, V. 1991. The evolutionary process. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gray, A. P. 1953. Mammalian hybrids: A checklist with bibliography. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Gray, A. P. 1958. Bird Hybrids: A checklist with bibliography. Technical Communication No. 13. The Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics Edinburgh. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Gray, A. P. 1972. Mammalian hybrids: A checklist with bibliography. 2nd ed. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Gray, M. W. 1998. Rickettsia, typhus and the mitochondrial connection. Nature, 396: 109-110.

Green, D. M. 1985. Natural hybrids between the frogs Rana cascadae and Rana pretiosa (Anura: Ranidae) Herpetologica, 41: 262-267.

Green, D. M., Delisle, D. M. 1985. Allotriploidy in natural hybrid frogs, Rana chiricahuensis × R. pipiens, from Arizona: Chromosomes and electrophoretic evidence. J. Herpetol.,19: 385-390.

Greenleaf, W. 1941. Sterile and fertile amphidiploids: Their possible relation to the origin of Nicotiana tabacum. Genetics, 26: 301-324.

Greenleaf, W. 1942. Genic sterility in tabacum-like amphidiploids of Nicotiana. J. Genet., 43 69-96.

Gregory, S. G. et. al. 2006. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Nature, 441: 315-321.

Gregory, T. R., Mable, B. K. 2005. Polyploidy in plants. In: The evolution of the genome, ed. T. R. Gregory, pp. 427-517. New York: Elsevier.

Gregory, W. K. 1951. Evolution emerging: A survey of changing patterns from primeval life to man. New York: Macmillan.

Gregory, W. K., Broom, R. 1926. The skeleton of Moschops capensis Broom: A dinocephalian reptile from the Permian of South Africa. New York: The American Museum of Natural History.

Grieg, D., Louis, E. J., Borts, R. H., Travisano, M. 2002. Hybrid speciation in experimental poulations of yeast. Science, 298: 1773-1775.

Griffen, A. B., Bunker, M. C. 1964. Three cases of trisomy in the mouse. PNAS, 52: 1194-1198.

Griffen, A. B., Bunker, M. C. 1967. Four further cases of autosomal primary trisomy in the mouse. PNAS, 58: 1446-1452.

Griffiths, A. J. F., Gelbart, W. M., Miller, J. H., Lewontin, R. C. 1999. Modern genetic analysis. San Francisco: Freeman.

Grimmett, R., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. 1998. Birds of the Indian subcontinent. London: A. & C. Black.

Gropp, A. Winking, H., Redi, C., Capanna, E., Britton-Davidian, J. Noack, G. 1982. Robersonian karyotype variation in wild house mice from Rhaeto-Lombardia. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 34: 67-77.

Grosart, A. B. ed. 1882-1884. The Complete Works in Verse and Prose of Edmund Spenser. Manchester: Printed for the Spenser Society.

Gross, B. L., Rieseberg, L. H. 2005. The ecological genetics of homoploid hybrid speciation. J. Hered., 96: 241-252.

Groth, A. H. 1928. A fertile mare mule. J. Hered., 19: 413.

Groves, C. P., Mazak V. 1975. An approach to the taxonomy of the Hominidae: Gracile Villafranchian hominids of Africa. Casopis pro Mineralogii a Geologii, 20: 225-247.

Groves, C. 1999. Australopithecus garhi: A new-found link? Reports of the National Center for Science Education, 19.3: 10-13.Casopis pro Mineralogii a Geologii, 20: 225-247.

Grubb, P. 1981. Equus burchelli. Mamm. Species, no. 157.

Gruber, H. E. 1974. Darwin on Man: A Psychological Study of Scientific Creativity. London: Wildwood House.

Grützner, F., Rens, W., Tsend-Ayush, E., El-Mogharbel, N., O'Brien, P. C. M., Jones, R. C., Ferguson-Smith, M. A., Graves, J. A. M. 2004. In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes. Nature, 432: 913-917.

Gu, X., Wang, Y., Gu, J. 2002. Age distribution of gene families shows significant roles of both large-and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution. Nature Genetics, 31: 205-209.

Günther, R. 1975. Zum natürlichen Vorkommen und zur Morphologie triploider Teichfrösche Rana "esculenta" L. in der DDR (Anura, Ranidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 51: 145-158.

Gustafsson, Å. 1943. The genesis of the European blackberry flora. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup; Leipzig: O. Harrassowitz.

Gustafsson, Å. 1946-1947. Apomixis in higher plants. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz.

Gustavo, S. G. L., Molina, W. F. 2005. Karyotype diversification in fishes of the Balistidae, Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae (Tetraodontiformes). Caryologia, 58: 229-237.

Gustavsson, I. 1990. Banding techniques in chromosome analysis of domestic animals. Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Medicine, 24: 245-289.

Gustavsson, I., Switonski, M., Larsson, K., Plöen, L. 1988. Synaptonemal complex analysis of spermatocytes in hybrids of silver and blue fox. J. Hered., 79: 338-343.

Guyer, M. F. 1900. Spermatogenesis in normal and hybrid pigeons. Dissertation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Guyer, M. F. 1902. Hybridism and the germ-cell. University of Cincinnati, Bull. no. 21.

Most shared on Macroevolution.net:

Human Origins: Are we hybrids?

On the Origins of New Forms of Life

Mammalian Hybrids

Cat-rabbit Hybrids: Fact or fiction?

Famous Biologists

Dog-cow Hybrids

Georges Cuvier: A Biography

Prothero: A Rebuttal

Branches of Biology

Dog-fox Hybrids