Pig hybrids

Family Suidae



Babirusa Babirusa
Image: Wikipedia

Babyrousa babyrussa [Babirusa]
× Sus scrofa (♀) [Domestic Pig] CHR. CON: Indonesia. See the separate article "Babirusa x Domestic Pig."

Hylochoerus meinertzhageni [Giant Forest Hog]
× Pan troglodytes [Chimpanzee] See the separate article "The Gorilla and the Koolokamba."

Phacochoerus aethiopicus [Desert Warthog]
× Phacochoerus africanus [Warthog] No hybrids are as yet reported. The epithet Phacochoerus aethiopicus,was formerly applied to the Cape Warthog of S. Africa. However, d’Huart and Grubb (2001) have recently pointed out that a surviving population, delemerei, in the Horn of Africa is nearly identical to the Cape Warthog, which had been thought to be extinct for more than a century. Thus, delemerei is an extant representative of P. aethiopicus. The IUCN states that a future research priority for Phacochoerus is to "investigate the systematic and ecological relationships between P. aethiopicus [i.e., P. aethiopicus delemerei] and P. africanus at the edges of their respective distributions in northern Kenya, eastern Ethiopia and north-west Somalia, and determine whether allopatry, sympatry or intergradation [i.e., hybridization] occurs in these areas." Internet Citations: IUCN5.

Phacochoerus africanus [Warthog]
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] In his description of southern Africa Anders Sparrman (1786, vol. II, p. 26), the Swedish naturalist and disciple of Carl Linnaeus, mentions that a litter of these hybrids was farrowed on a South African farm. He also mentions that another well-known naturalist, Peter Simon Pallas, had attempted to produce this same cross and failed. There do not seem to be any modern reports of such a hybrid.

Potamochoerus larvatus [Bush Pig]
× Potamochoerus porcus [Red River Hog] ENHR(central Africa). There is a broad hybrid zone in central and eastern Dem. Rep. Congo, and in southern Sudan. These taxa are sometimes lumped. Kingdon 1979 (p. 201). Internet Citations: BPIG, RHOG.
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] Hybridization occurred in the Transvaal in the early 1970’s, when an escaped domestic sow mated with a bush pig. The resulting litter of eight had bush pig traits (Smithers 1983). Layard, quoted in Gray (1869, p. 398), says "the hybrid is prolific."

Potamochoerus porcus [Red River Hog]
See also: Potamochoerus larvatus.
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] ONHR(Gabon). Contact occurs where introduced Eurasian wild pigs have become established in Burkina Faso, Gabon and, probably, Dem. Rep. Congo. East 1990. Internet Citations: IUCN.

Sus ahoenobarbus [Palawan Bearded Pig] See: Sus barbatus × S. cebifrons.

Sus andamanensis [Andaman Pig] See: Sus celebensis × S. scrofa.

Note: Domestic pigs are commonly kept in outlying human settlements adjacent to remaining forest refugia harboring endangered or near endangered types of wild pigs. The IUCN says this "poses a potentially severe risk of disease transmission and/or genetic contamination to wild pig populations through increased likelihood of their contact with free-ranging domesticates." Three pigs are mentioned in this connection: Sus barbatus, S. cebifrons, and S. philippensis. Internet Citations: IUCN4.

Sus barbatus [Bearded Pig]
× Sus cebifrons [Visayan Warty Pig] NHI. The Palawan Bearded Pig (Sus ahoenobarbus) is probably this hybrid. The Wild Pig Specialist Group states that "hybridization may have occurred between barbatus and cebifrons, so that ahoenobarbus maintains characteristics of both species" (accessed: 6/29/2013). The distribution of ahoenobarbus on Palawan and adjacent islands is geographically intermediate between those of barbatus and cebifrons, and land bridges connecting their ranges existed during past Pleistocene glaciations that could potentially have brought barbatus and cebifrons into breeding contact. Sus ahoenobarbus is thus geographically and morphologically intermediate a PHP of this cross.
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] CHR. HPF(♂&♀). S. scrofa is feral throughout much of S. barbatus’s range (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and adjacent islands). Hertwig 1936; Lotsy 1922; Mohr 1960. Internet Citations: IUCN4, IUCN6.

Sus cebifrons [Visayan Warty Pig]
See also: Sus barbatus.
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] ONHR(Philippines). A hybrid was captured near Basay in the southeastern part of Negros Island. Oliver states that "remaining populations [of S. cebifrons] are declining as a result of continued habitat destruction and intense hunting pressure. These populations are also potentially seriously threatened by "genetic contamination" through interbreeding with free-ranging domestic and feral pigs." See note immediately preceding Sus barbatus. S. cebifrons was until recently treated as a race of S. barbatus. Oliver 1992. Internet Citations: IUCN4, IUCN6.

Sus celebensis [Sulawesi Wild Boar]
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] The common pigs of New Guinea and parts of the Moluccas group are hybrids between S. celebensis and the common pig. Indeed, Groves showed that the second member of Sus to be described as a species, Sus papuensis of New Guinea, is almost certainly a hybrid of S. scrofa and S. celebensis. The pigs on which S. papuensis is based either arose through hybridization after the parental types were introduced to New Guinea or arose elsewhere and were themselves introduced. Similar hybrids also occur in the Moluccas, on Seram, Flores, Timor, and some nearby small islands (Nowak 1999, p. 1057). An IUCN website (IUCN3) says, “there are other populations of hybrid feral pigs in the Moluccas which are practically indistinguishable from the New Guinea pigs, as well as apparently pure-bred derivatives of each of these species [i.e., S. celebensis and S. scrofa] on some other islands in this group, and in the Lesser Sunda chain of islands.” “Similarly,” says another IUCN site (IUCN2) “the so-called ‘S. timoriensis’ of Timor and 'S. mimus’ of Simeulue Island (off N. W. Sumatra) are both highly modified introduced forms of S. celebensis, whereas ‘S. andamanensis’ and ‘S. nicobaricus’ of the nearby Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Bay of Bengal) are both highly modified forms of S. scrofa.” Until recently, S. celebensis was treated as a race of S. barbatus. Groves 1981. Internet Citations: IUCN2, IUCN3, IUCN6.

Sus oliveri [Mindoro Warty Pig]
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] NHR. CON: Mindoro Island in the central Philippines. The Wild Pig Specialist Group states that "Hybridization [of Sus oliveri] with free-ranging domestic pigs introduced and maintained by hinterland communities is an additional and likely serious threat" (accessed 6/29/2013).

Sus papuensis [Papuan Pig] See: Sus celebensis × S. scrofa.

Sus philippensis [Philippine Warty Pig]
× Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig] CHR. CON: Philippines. See note immediately preceding Sus barbatus. Internet Citations: IUCN4, IUCN6.

Domestic pigs vs. wild boars: Duff and Lawson treat domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boars as separate species, Sus domesticus and S. scrofa. And the two do differ in chromosome counts (the domestic pig has 2n=38 and wild boars have 2n=36). On this page, however, the name Sus scrofa refers to the domestic pig. Domestic pigs and wild boars produce partially fertile hybrids together. Andersson (1997) used crosses between wild boar and domestic pig to map phenotypic trait loci. Wikipedia has the following to say about an unually large wild hybrid of this type:

Hogzilla was a male hybrid of wild hog and domestic pig that was shot and killed by Chris Griffin in Alapaha, Georgia, United States, on June 17, 2004 on Ken Holyoak’s fish farm and hunting reserve. It was alleged to be 12 feet (3.7 m) long and to have weighed over 1,000 pounds (450 kg). Originally, it was widely considered a hoax. However, the animal’s remains were exhumed in early 2005 and studied by Dr. Oz Katz and his father, Dr. Eliahu Katz. The latter coined the name "Hogzilla". In March 2005, these scientists confirmed that Hogzilla actually weighed 800 pounds (360 kg) and was between 6.9 feet (2.1 m) and 8.6 feet (2.6 m) long, diminishing the previous claim. DNA testing was performed, revealing that Hogzilla was a hybrid of wild boar and domestic pig (Hampshire breed). However, compared to most wild boars and domestics, Hogzilla is still quite an extraordinary specimen. His tusks, which were asymmetric in length, measured nearly 28 inches (71 cm) and 19 inches (48 cm), respectively.
Domestic Pig Domestic Pig

Sus scrofa [Domestic Pig]
See also: Babyrousa babyrussa; Potamochoerus larvatus; P. porcus; Phacochoerus africanus; Sus barbatus; S. cebifrons; S. celebensis; S. oliveri; S. papuensis; S. philippensis. Also see the separate article entitled "Human Origins: Are we hybrids?."
× Bos taurus [European Domestic Cattle] There is a brief report of such a hybrid on page 6 of the February 5, 1901 issue of the El Paso Daily Herald, a newspaper published El Paso, Texas (Access Source). It states that "A freak of nature was found by J. C. Yoakum, near Honey Grove, last week. It was half pig and half calf, the head and body being that of a calf, while the lower jaw, legs and feet were those of a hog. It was dead when found."
× Capra hircus [Domestic Goat] There is a brief report of such a hybrid on page 3 of the June 25, 1867 issue of the The Western Democrat, a newspaper published Charlotte, North Carolina (Access Source). It reads as follows: "HALF HOG AND HALF GOAT—A Mr. Farmer, of Henderson county, informs us that he had born on his place an animal that was evidently half pig and half goat. The head and shoulders were hog, but the other part of the body was goat."
× Canis familiaris [Domestic Dog] See the separate article "Dog-pig Hybrids."
× Equus caballus [Domestic Horse] See the separate article "A Pig-horse Hybrid?."
× Homo sapiens [Human] See the separate article "Pig-human Hybrids."
× Ovis aries [Domestic Sheep] See the separate article "Pig-sheep Hybrids."
× Primates sp. [Primate] See the separate article "Pig-primate Hybrids."
× Sus verrucosus [Javan Pig] NHR(Indonesia). A probable hybrid was killed in 1982 in East Java (about 150 km southeast of Surabaya). Blouch and Groves mention two other unconfirmed reports of wild hybrids in East Java. Blouch and Groves 1990. Internet Citations: IUCN6.

Sus timoriensis [Timor Wild Boar] See: Sus celebensis × S. scrofa.

Sus verrucosus [Javan Pig] See: Sus scrofa.

dog-cow hybrid A dog-cow hybrid?

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By the same author: Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World, Oxford University Press (2006).

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